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Full text of "عالم المعرفة"


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3j. nlj i nil ajl*Jlj IjJjjJI cjLS^L«JI » lj-t-*»- j*l j ' "!^ I a I j ' "1 (jl La-> (jSLIj 

/_fl Cju^Laj (j-a 3 J o"i i n a (jLj^-al (_>iutj (.^ 0jjJl>. Cj-iLi (JLlU (Jj i i n (jk. 

(jj£Lj jJs (j nS<llj t^j nAlJI jai^. jl (jjiLl*-^! (si^. jl ( _ ? -ml j i nil p-L»i>-VI <Ac 

aj I < 1 1 j CjLjjJlUI (j-a (J-^ (_5-3 /j La i a -» "' /cSLajj CjJL>-j (jr-'-'t^ ' Lsej^e-LiS 
M^(jV iJxjLSjJjj! Jj V^Lcbis-Vl A>b«JI (j^^JjJI i2jl3>UJIj ^uLluJI 
j j I A i rt ^j.* cLlcLjIL>. 2(1 3^_^LL^J1 (J_LL?tj^ iCu^jLLa 5^j^>- (_p-a-l 3Jl>- ^k w^_La 
aj I ttl Jljjul jua] (j| (_Jjl ^j-bLa /oj (j-aj . Ij-fJ^ Ll&Ij I jj i n 3 JixJ (_g^Lv| 
^j_a jJLSij jjjjjL-L^-a ^j_a J-^tSl A^"J ^Ltx-l ^jLS jj LoS ^jjfcljJl cLlcLjIL>. 2( 1 
^yiill Ijjiniit (^j^l 4<U^ (_ T k.J (3j^v (_yi^.) (_j-<-ri f«-^-i-a (JSj JLa-C. 3x.j^l^a 
(jl LLjfc Lilj .«LLC.L»i>-VI Sj-ifcUiJI x_a (J^Lilll «(_ t 1jJ,I» IjL^J I '^aij ^ i iiAJ 
d /i r.^11 ( J_4_jlj1 CjLcj_cj?e_a (JS -ij-$->- (j^ ^ljLlII «(_ t Jl4J,1 » ljufc J rt JJ ' ^"' ' 
J '^°i C3-^) (j-^-y* (jj SLj-m » La S II j ..4ijJaJI oJl^j e^\js>-\ Jj luj (_gjJlj 

c-l A"Wlj S^LaMJ L>JL^3 oj^i (j4i FTj^'" iJ-° ^L>.jua td i_3jji3 (jj (i «jjt\tl 

(_p»jl ■ : '" 1 II (S-Lc (_y^ a I J i ".*« I (_j_L>-J^a (jLa (<u (j-aj ' ' . ' J I la 1 1 J^e-Ll! (_yk- "^ 
till i TccajLj-u Lo£ Lls.jLx-1 ji LjlaLSij QjSj (jl Ja V (_j-mlj i nllj (_ 7 ^.L»H>-VI 



25 



!_, up !_■ ■■■ 1 1 9 i^cLcCIpUl yjb$la.Jj\ (olc ^S ^n^Sn 

CjLj_i.}| ' __j------) pj_uaj_o ^1 (jVI Ji^lj • ( _ T Jj L*^ N J ' a ■~ 1 "' _>^l *JJ i aj 

ajJL*JI jji I axLLajJI ?Lcj (jj^j * ' J ->»ai ( _ t JjLs «G^£j La Jjuj i(_p3jLfljJI 
/^^LaLSjLlI <j>._pJI (jJJa-Lo £y» (^SDj .SjL>. ^^k: MfT 3Ah^t| 4-LcL«ivVI 

jus 4j^13 jjL*-o (J^L>- (j-o 4_j^.L»H>-VI ajUI oVL^o j-^- (_^-aLvJ ' '"y 1 •""' 

dilji^j i/«1jl!I Ijl^j ^LgJ,! L^j (<sJj (jl Jj 2j 4ii-ljiio 5>J^ oW 3 *' Lt^ UJ^ 

: ( _ T jfcj (jjjjLxJ.1 j__^zij\-aX\ 
.CjujLlII CjLJjJij j j b> '. n /ylc j_o_pJI x_a (^jlajLflliJI j^je-o : Vjl 
4-pjl i nil Cj^LcLojjM uljijj jLt-il (JjJL>o (_jl^. jjS_pJ! *-a ( _ > l3jLfll!l : LjJLiJ 

. 4jj^3jLajJI 4-lLjjlJI ( _ t 3 ^ ^j" 'J 4laLi Sjjj-aJ 
. Lu/Lj/I (^^jLm Ajuuaic "• (JjJLso (_ T k. JjS^jJI *-a (jlajLajJI : Ll!Li 

Game theories ub jL4t tilLlj&l j$£n# 4* yto$la«Jt j^* : 2$t 

cIjLjjLII '"'^■^'." «;•_' LoJ}Li-ij-a UjJI jkitl Jljj>JI .jljji^U LiiljiSj 
ojui Jiu l^ir i-.-v.^ gj c _ y ^J1 r- jLtlll ,<s-a>i ^1 jj.^'i Lia>j (Game theories) 
CjLjjLjJ,! toLxj ju^jCu S^j^jlIIj i ( _ > l3jLfljjM ^Ijji- Lgju aj (_yll! CjLjjJiill 

•.^yjj Li£ ^yjij (Game Models) 
Utility Models: Jj>. jl iUjiuj ,^1 Jjj-ajJI jl iUi^Jll r^UJ - 

J La -* ' i_2j_<jj (_3-J-I' )«_3m! (_yJ! SjLivVu ajI i ."ill 3-iL»c I a loj j<uj Lijj^- 

»/jni1l jl I J • ■■■-" 4jLdlX I jl I J i "^' <LC\ LajJI (_,i^. L^J^L>- (j-a J J ' ^ *- 1 1 <— SjJa 
£^j9 4 I 1 1, 1 , 1, J^Li. ( j_o 4_L>- joJLj p I j i a 1 1 (j_a pj_i I uili jl i(jLS ul 4-ntflj 
Cj 3" ~J i«L»iajL2Ji,l £yl pjj L^J^Li- (j-° (<"JJ i— 3jJa (JSLi 4j^sL>JI CjLvl^ILaVI 
j-a2 Ij . La i— 2jia L^oji^ (_ 7 jJI CjL>-j"iSU Jl>-2 i_2jJa ^Jj ■ flj (^jIojLfljJI 4-L1 1 C 
<Sj"n"ia 4jj^J 4_Laji>- 4iCj Jj-»-J JJ* r- JLqJjl ojui a! JlJ-"ii ul tcjv^j (_g JJI 
(. I c (jl_3j_LiJI 4_l£ J i a 3e J 3'-^Jl (_3-IJ (Jj-Lis^JI J ' a aj (^^jLajJI i_2lji32 



21 



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l_La> *J j **- ^ 1 Jl>*-»j3j •_>*■ "I t_2jJaJI (JjJS (j-o i-Sjia JSLI <L»oLitl j-jl i n-^JI 

. 4_L£_a_a 4jj i uJ 1jj_u| i t_L>OJ t ^>^- 4 - 4 cr-*" j' 4-jJ ' uJ (J '^*^* ^^l jJj-ciD^jl 3^e-l 

d , >■, ^- ", 1 1 £-JL«_l!I jj-o Lo>j_l*£ ?- jLaJjl oJui (JjLso 4-jlftC '"•» '^-^i jJilj 

. (s) a^ji ij^L^ji oVjUI ^i oLjUI ^l^ l^ 

Models of Strategic Interaction: ^y^ajljJLtuVl JaI^jJI r^L*J - 

LlA ((^lojLio ji) i_iC.V J^ j la o <^p- iSljLdl L.aljia'i/ <1>-LlI,I 2_. ."--jl *"tl 

dl! jij iSjjLa^ cjLi3=_uI^1jj<I J^L*. (j-o i m niSLXIj x-^l—iXI [tt-t^jtj 3JjL*-o ^1 

ljui (jLa ^LULj i^Ll^jLojJI CjLjjLlII ojui (JlLa ( _ T 3 J^i-jJI j .Ja i 4jl3jILo 
l-LflJij td<tvj3 (3^-<j-i La ji) (Utility Models) 3<iiiU r iLaJ {_>£. • ajqjcjj aal 
(j^ejjIjjjj/VI (j£.Lil!t r-iLaJ o' lt^ («5jjjji3 ji (_L-»- (_yJI Jjj^s^JI r-iLaJD^iajLLi 
a-sLUI jft-Jajili ^Ll^jLoIJI CjLc*_uI^L<j/VI JjJlj>o (_jl^. L^J^L*. <j-a j_p^HJ! (CjJ 

i—Sjia (JSLs rr 'j k '"'^ £ ^ J( -L j- ^ I ^ji "'"_> Li-Aj < La (_a^LaJ ^Sl i n-»Jl (JjISjj 

(JjSLjj jj>-VI i_2jJaJI I jAUjj "tl CjLisejjI^Ijji^L! I S-lLj 4jLj=E-<jl^i<-ul i alaaj 
CjLca-ol^pj-uV i—aljia^l (j-° <— ^J-la (_p L-ojlajj jLjJiJ I la-aa-. _j-<fc Lui /*jLJI 
.«Lj>J1_i^3 (_;£ /tJU jj^"»"l «U «L>-Lll,l (JjIJljJI 4-al Jiir'u ulj I J Ltju CjLSj^soj 
i±*^tjJI)) Lxjkj (]/Lj i im'jj ijlai^a c?-^- Jt^Il«3 SIjLlII jl sUjiill (jLa ^LlIuj 
i>jLjj_l La ^-j3Lj ^j^ 2 Seli J I g ^^IAj"j UJ_La 3 Si flJ i u 21 4_L*Lp» J «CjLajU U ^j^ 
i a jj b. 1 1 jjjj^jjlj j^uutJI ■" J a 1 1 i_ajJa (_p (_,< i nj Luij . jj>-VI i _ 7 i^- La i_a^is 
jLlli- 2 La (_3jJ3 tfLsol JJl^sj ji Ji^23 (_jjJ! Cj!^jJi2jJIj j \l <^1 Ij jjusUjMj 

.4_u^3jLajJI 3ljLJi,l tLul ( _ T 3 La 
La (^jlajLLa JjLaJ i^j-l! "J l^a-fl-ll j_uQj!» J ((CjLajUU)) 'J"JJ"^j 
( _ T 3 j_uQi! 3JjLt^ (_Ll«-i Li3 i5j_u£ aja Laj (jl laXJiej ijj>-VI ( _ T JLc «CLujL<i^ 
jl < ua^eSJ CjLaj_L«_a jsjJl^j SjLlaj ^ i ■■■-" Cj^jJI ( _ T 3 (jj^i j^« V I i_3^LaJI 
^JLlI j_ljLjJI ^LSLuSJJ La i_2jia SjLejjjjI (jLa iu^SjJLj ->i-VI i ajUH 
O "J ^ * w * J '~ rt j'* rt J " '^ rt l_Ajj JlJ jJILa-i /ca-£iJ>J 1 L^ILi_ujLc_a jjjLeJ 

J j , ^ ^ 1 1 -sJLj ^yjJI CjLaj I < 1,1 iJJ^J Ji^J .tLsljuii TcJL^aJ j_uLl)l 3JjLe-a 



25 



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(j_o p_3_i_J1 I li-i, JiLa ( _ 3 _3 S_iiL£ tjj-^ ^3 S-Laji*. I J '"* y-l .^'aVI j? I j_il<- 
vlilj.j'^l plj-Jl <tsL? a JlJ-"i i n~i (_>Iojl aaJI (j-a ?"JL«_l1I ojui Jlta lt^J J'' I fljJl 



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j_j-CJ slj iii » tLcJiij-olj 4_uL$J CjIjI jjlj CjIJijJl^j «Ll>-jjj CjljJjJI dJb^jso 
(_yJI ' SJ-$3 (_ T J-I! tiaa JLuaJI 3_<jjjLx-« ^^Jl i 3 J j " (_yll! iliL^j^tll! (j-a till!} 

(. I c lJl-u ajj SJjJlC dll£LuS3 (j 1 ' '-"' aJ^ 4-lLcLoIlII oLtJL-ol^pj-uVlj 
tl]LiJc_u| j p i "I j] -i i^ajjl jl ia.1 L^la i_2Jl$JIj i4j^3 CjLjja_ul^pjjil La] L^jji 
. (Accomodative moves) *Ll!l f jjiaiJLi J^9 jl S-ttjLu 5-iLa-"...! 
oJlj* (j_o I ^ 3 -^~ 3 iXjLflail <_aljiaVI • klajj La 3jLc v ) i*aJI I j-A (_y3j 

LdlaSj iJuIjjJI tiiLaj^l ^ 3j-oU- 3_L^jLilII S-lUaJI ^ oLt^-ul^pj-uVI 

i >ijUj" -j^j LiLl>-L3 ilJlSjJ,! J}Lu-u ' .' ' ""** **i)^ * 'J 'Lj^-LiiivVI CjLajVI !_^ 

La i_aj_L> j^-j LajL_Lc c-j ,>.-^j JjLuj 3_iLajjj<l cjoLuSjj cjLca-ul^pjji! 

La I Juij i4-t3 j\j o~c i ii VI «L>JLi^5 ( _ T 3 (j-"jJ p I J ^aJ (_L-v ji "ijj-tuj (jJI Jj-i^jJI 
«.}jJlj>JI JljljI (_jJI (JjLilJIj 3_jLa-"i i nVI oLisl-uI^IL-uI)) j-;JJJ>3 4_lL^. j I ki 

JjLljJI (_g! Ja-JJ-JI S-Lstjjl^pjj/I tdLL&j i (Extreme Accomodative strategy) 

dll jS tiJLufcj . sLu-uL-uVI jj-aVI (2j£, (JjLuJI (_>ii3jj SjjjLlII jj^VI jiu ^c 

J • 2j V dij-». Firm Strategy «<LuJI JjLuJI j»Oc» ji tiiLAII <Li^c_u1j"iiii1 jjjju 

IJljLLui^ <_2jlaJI I jufc jjSJj i til Vj Lull (JJJ faJ (_£? (jlfi. aIJlSVLi La i_SjJa 
» i^a-se-J (jyJ-*- j <i" i ii U j^vLuJI jl t_!jj>JI «LL-vj-a ^1 j_a2u (Jjj-aji! S^Lc 
*jj(^lll SjjsijjI^I^VI ^yX-tuJ 3JUJI ojui^j .<GLc.j 3^KJ jls-VI i_3jiaJI 
rj T i " '— i ^ x -£ lr L> ~ tliLiIojLiXLi j ttl t\~tlj ^^jt^JI 4_i3Ejjl^pjjiiJ I J ^^ tajj 

.' (7) J^L, 
: ( _ 7 1j La Lcjj i"i ^^jejjI^PjjiVI (J^Lallll r - JLxj ^iiSi (j-aj 
Prisoners Dilemma: tjrjALyJI 4JLu3jl^» r i>*J - 
JLalcl /<u Jl^ 4JLi 3ijL2JI 5 j^v j i n^lSLJI 2 LtaSlI (j-a (Jiiia r-i^x-J! I juij 
(_p f-t^J (<U Ji^J i«Laj^>- t_jLvJjl ( _ T 3 tjLSj'ii'ia I i j il ( _ T 3 ;>l j" i"i^U (^TU-aic-iSi 

j»L*JI t_Jl_Lll ^ aiiui! a^^LiJI a uim ii o.^ «JsVi ^ cru^XI a»l 



26 



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: I -1 j'alj"^ V 3_JLl!l (_xJsIjjl!Li - j" a J£ j_tiej 

i_aj " r 1 (_gJJI (jLa i«lSLj^_Ju i_2^L*j /<sJj ^r* i j" ^ Jl»-I i_a^i£.l lil : Vjl 

(Jl< niVu <_JsL*-uji3 (^OJI < j" 1 1 Lai """ LaJ i "II «_o 4JjLtil «L>-Ijj-u (jllaj i u 

cjIj "... j iSig SjJ, 2Jal_JuJI 
SjJ, (jj*-<-»iJI *i ,'j S » j i_^L«j 1 1 j j a (jLa ' Q-* i j" 1 1 (j-o (_p <— s^llcl lil : Lou 

. CjI a i ( u fj n o~*- 
SjJi, (j-a- 1 nil i_jjfc jj I i j ' a }L£ (jLa (j\ i j"l I (j-o J£ <_2^1*j /oJ lil : liJu' 

. 3Jl>-1j 4_u_u 
«Li!Li» ^^3 (j-ftSi J^LsJI Jjia^i (jl ^yS (j-<iSj L-oJSjll I jjt ^ Sli^nllj 

(- 1 c SjJl^JI (jj^ tl^-li d)T intl (_yi 3jl>-Ij 4_uji f. 1 1 a a j <_a!^i£.VI j»J^. i^l 

(2y -I j"M Jl»-I i-iii«JJ J^ L>i^ *'j-^-l <-^Lu* (j^ ' I * 1 '..' L*i^ ij-i ' "'"'^ J I uajVI 

(j i r ■ — »— T (JiajJ A jo i ii^JI <l" 'I 3 '"' J J * JLJ J "^ «i_iC^UI» p JlieJ (jLj «(j\j£.^UI» 

. (Vjl) ^yfl L«£ i7-lj_tuJI (jlLa^a Ttjj-ajj i«U /Jlju 

(_ajjj, ciSLj^ji jji_i (j\o£.^UI Jl».I Jl2o^.I lil «ul ,^3 I Joj I (j-sSi 2 1 ■ >■ » 1 1 j 

i_2l^k:VI (Jjj-o j^T ^LjJiJ 4-aLaI <_Lr-=tu <jj I juk jLa liLcjieJ 
i_alj" r VI ^^Jl (_JL*JI /_i sLa-Ti i u ;j* i j" 1 1 CjLjja-ulj'n ul (jLa Lui jj-aj 
!_!{ in" J (ii I i J j 1£ (j-a <_al^j£.VI I jtjfc (ji (j-a («^-J-II (_>!<* ^i^^' M^jW 
j-aVI jjij (LuLi (_3-^ L«£) ijjj?-^' (_r^ CjIjJjji (jjt*i. r ' '^ a r^ I i J ' " JSL! 
4JV Cjljl_Lli.VI J (Vi'al S.JjjjlII 3_p.ljJ| ( j^ 4_cSJj tLtxmJ 4_j£ i_!^c.jj,l j-J^- 
(jLuiiXJJ ■ 1 J*" j_p (— S^IIju 3JL>JI oJuk ( _ T ^a i J ?" (i II (jLaal jj^ jj^ jjil 7c_uJ 
aJulj ^>- irl ^_^ «GJjj 1 o i^Jl>- t » L^a > (j! ^j-a 2i JJ ^j^e i nil ^_^ CjI^_u_u jhqv 
^ o i nj JlS La I JLAj) lU^'a 3jL>-|j 3 'n „ I -i g^xlSU TtjLiJI OJ^i Lt^ (_al^HcVI 

.((jLaVl 2_u>Lltj 

2 ?"dl f-^LG^ja 4j^v^^pj LfejLa- '( i n'a 21 .^«1 I oJLA J-aLil Ll<4^ La lil LiJl 

4_ajJa Lxj (jJl-3 <jj j ni La 2l(^nl,la itdlj (^SUj ^j-a ^1 ^Jlj jl>.^I ^ 
Trust (9) & Co- (JjLlIIIj 2_liJ| Siciijiju oU^l La t^^J Archibald tiLcj-LJI 

. operation Dilemma 
Chickens Dilemma: (jL^JI "a 1 1 >> t-a - 



57 



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(jSUj hjjLoJI (^^c. (jLi£.^UI ^It-'ij LoJlJc^. Jiijjej (j-lj£.^UI ^iSLI jijLj ijj-ui 

(jl tfj-J-3- i ?J i ii^l jljLcJI J_*_i (_y-Jl-j TtjLcJI I j_& (jLa i^yLa- 1 nil 21 ■ ^-» a (_y^ 
HJjLjLLII (j-C (. It-"i_) (_£JJI i_x£.^UI (jJI i_jji jj Cf^r- 1 nil 2 !<>■» ^ ^^3 ijjji'i/l 
(jl ^^JS (j-L?" i nil ^ 1 ''^* rt «LiLtuJ «(JLl>J1 ^ 1 ' a * g »a t«L<j_x-£i>. (jjLtlLi (j^->- ^L^. 
(Jj-ca^JI (jLiiajj Ll& I i J" Lo-Aj Lii>- L (jjLOJI (j'jj-^i L-AJ>-i^- (j\-i£.')U\ y& 
j-j-C. (jl_Lj>JI 2 I ■ >> » " 2_!L>. ^^a TtjLiJI tjSLIj • JjJ^uil JjJj La 1 1 3_L>.j_a j^JJ 
-jji-VI i SjiaJI CjI jIU J^S 3-l^e-uIj"iiiiI (j\j£.}UI JL»-I jbi.1 lil tU^ (jj-aLa 
S-i^ljjIjJL^I jL<ii-l >aU. 4jjJ Oi^-" J-^l t_^^-" O.^-Luj-^ J^ ^ 
JaJiS «Laljuil jjjjJLso f_j\r jIjj^sVIj ila i ujj| (_^>JI ^^' a J 

Perfect Information ibaUJI LJLajJLdl £)li ljLjjLlII - 

4_LoLSLIIj «LoLl!I cjLqj I » II I j . ^»j ^>^j'< I j " ~ (_ylll cju_jLjJ,I ( _ t j*j 

it_!jLuJLi SIjLlII jl sUjiill i—SljJal Liij^clu £j-£>- (^J-o ■»■ ij U .".II CjljjLviS) 
2Jbl i nil <J1) l^j^tit Li J-al£ *dL£. ijia (jj£j i_iC^LII (jLa 2 Laj jl 4^jv J£ (j3j 

Imperfect Information <L«LlJI j_i£ LJLajJLall £)li ljLjjLXI - 

( _ t jJI cjj^£_!I >_i_g_-v Lj-La i_3jj>j (jl i_*^.^ul »^l^" • ..j V cjLjjL^o (j-*j 

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p 1 n "1" La 3jLc [j-LS^Ia (j^ ^H^l tlfV (*-" Lt-^' CjuIajLill (j-o JijJlaJI (jl 

Alliance) (j^j (_aJUel!l oLjjLujj (Adversary Bargaining) f-jLilll oLjjLaj 
di! j Sj^jjla 1 aloiej (jSLIj (>CLuiiII ^ i-aljia'^l JLtsl Ji-lj^Iij (Bargaining 

Jl3 ^jJI ij'lMl jIJl^xj Ji-ljlII Sj^tJa ^ inTtpjLuJI iTjLjjLus^yia iji-ljtlll 
.•»• II LaJ I p-ljj^s 3Jl>- AjvjJ^^I^. j-a^ll I Jlj* i—aSjjjj i/O-i-aJjLl La i_ 3jJa cL^seJj 
4_jJLLaJi, p j 1 a g. 1 1 ^Ir - Ltajj I j-^=J (jl JjLaJ 2JL>JI ojui (^ i-Sjia J^-3 
(^j'ill pLijV ^\ J < "r 1 11VI )«_a TcJLi^a^JJ j o" i u a (OJ^Sj <Ul»C (jil-Luk (JjSjj 
1 aj U II aJ_c 3j^ (J-^J La-5t^j CjL»-3jj dllii (j£. ^j^*- i"'_'J 'J^^W *J-^lj 
CjVjLja_o (j 1 <>•"" La S^Lc l_L<fc 4_ajl 1 11 U 4-iLa-Cj . . A o i n->. ^Jlaj jj>-VI 



28 



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*uJl2j (jLa Vlj i JjJl^III J^li- (j-o ^ < n^l lr jji-VI 3j JiJS ^Ir SjJqj mil 
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Aj-a-jJ I LgJLujj ct-^' ^l-^-^^l 
lOjLiiJI 2IjLl4 - 
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Lo j_o> CjLjjLiJ,I (j-o «Lj£.jjJI ojui Cj 1 J j ii «3 tciIojj ( _ 7 jJI dJiLa^l j<3'"'ij i < J Lu 
■ t ^ I a i^^jJLl! (—iJL^tlll i Sj-a-La £j\j 1956 j»Lc (j-oJj i a II 3-ojl (_y3 CjJL>- 

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I 1 j «l ^ a J>j^x_$_> 4_j| (^jJlLjJI (j-° i_P S-iLa jj i aj <^t>- <« JjLaJLi)) /- o i n~i 



•" J Lu (<uLaJI L-aJLxHJ! (jlIaJLa (j-« ' i j '" a j " (.j-^JJ ^ L0L9 La pLul i^Jjju «Lf^ 
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29 



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ill Lj-ta-jL^JJ I aula L$J c. I < ^ " (jl ( _ r i-iJJ ( _ t jJI-«LlL«j>-1! oJl^J JuLLlI Lx-fl>j_jIL»j 
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f-^lj (_y^ JoJLa (j ,ij I SjUJ^C 3 l"i a] L^J CjLjjLII tfj-A Jilo fjJs CjIjI i n-»JI 

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. (Protector-Client Game) (jjj)Jlj ^^al^JI j^ytli oLjjLJ,! 
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(J_«JLa_o ^jILu^jjj/ (Ji-JiJ (_gi JljIo ^^aLsJI jjj dJJjij <tl£ ' kL>JI d-~\i^<\ 

Super game: jjjiull ljLjjLi^ - 
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(_J3 (J o i"i" CjLjjLjJ,! (j_o 4_^cjjJI j>JLAj . . jl j"r VI (j\*J JljjijJI ^1 -^~ . .. 1 1 

(j_0 pjl—uJI CjUjLiA (_5-*J Jl>.!j (jl (_y3 CjUji^O Cj^ij /JLjllJ jLjUc I L^jLlLo 

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: La-Aj (j-G_u_uL_ul (j- C t-L T e-U l^lL-o 1 L_a_u^aJ (_ T k SjJuLJI La-il-i 

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. jLpi-VI CjuaJLiJ (_, 1 nj La L4I0J i^jJaJI S^lSLi ^ "-.;"*• i»aJlj 

cj^LcLfllll (_y3 L^iJajjJ 4-4J^H! oLcajjI^jjj/VI pjj (ojj^Li aLl2JI -<_j 

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jl S(jjl j" llj (Jjl_LLll jl SjI_l>-VIj j_^_SJI cjl_jja_ul^pjjil jl SSjjpJU (_yjk 

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JljJl^v j J '^ a 4_iLLa-> (JJ-SLj AJLllI I tLflj-L I IJlj* (j2 S^jal aIJi!L>-I tLui 
4j aJL (j I <"n La-i3 <Lc^L>-j . I J'j* 1 '""'*»* 1 a3 (_ 7 k ^7^^' ^ ->_;-> LaJI CjLajU oil 

. ^ a * ' la ji 
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^ J 2 J 2 >i 1 1 j 4-5e-L3e-i^aJI fljj 1 a 1 1 (JjjSj (_y3 i—aljJaal AJaiej La Lulj 4JI 
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32 



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iS.aj'i/l 3jl.il L$J IJlJ (_ylll 4jj^-uIj"ii nVl (j-o (_yCJ (jj- 5 " J I ' a ^ " i-3j-laJI I J-* 
tjrjs o Jj^j La (_ji£- J j i^aadl 4-<u^Lo j^lc Lufc (jjSjj I frfl-tlaaj ( _ T 3 i o" i aj Jj 
j-o^l i L*_o ^r* a J ta 11 ?t-!L^3 J-i-^- ct^ UJ~3 '<*J' i n"llj (^jlajLajJI '"«! A t~ 
L&jj^j (_jjJI ajLJcILcuil Cj Laj U «i II <Lul jJI iJsLcVI (j-o p^j SjLlaj Q^i iS'^ 
,_£jji.^l i-aljia^l jjl i ajUtl ( 2 > c (Jjjs-I (jjjLiL».j pljj-aJI (JjLiLa. (jx. 3-oj^l 

.3-ajVl *!_ij| 
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^yk: 3j-oU- iLu^LcLij ^ L*jij£ij ^ylll jjLuiJI t^bejj ^£1 i LulsIj ^ 
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. I g-jlc t_ijjilll ^1 7-LLso 
:ljLjjLXI i-l)Li^h't ^j-a 2 \~, t Vi mt, I <LaLxtl J^ljJiJI 
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(I) i_3j_LaJI i . . i n'C a j! (_gi (Zero-Sum Game) lj iii^ ^gjl . . "i SljLdl (jllaJLa 
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pjl i^alllj PjLlJI 3JL>- SjjIj o"n uLi JUa3 3ljLi-o (j j' a tiiljijj .. (<_)) _> Sjl i n-^JI 
NonZero Sum-jl Ijni^-i ;_$ jl i n" V 3-Laj>JU» (-Aj 3_uL\II SljLII j .j^-LuJIj 
i_a^LaJI TcJL-iiA ■" j jj I Jlj^ La ( _ > l3-5Lio I jj a CT-^Ai lt^' *'jW^' L3-*J «Game 

Liajl 4 j I r j I Ul |_a I juij nj^SjJail i _i i n'C oil S^vLvilA ijJLui (jLiJ jji.^/1 

j.* l_L& I 'ijj Laj (Win Win Approach «<_. m^tj i_. in^lo) iIjLjjL^o j-f^ 

3j_aL13 J j I ~>o u^ I j * a ';»* i u "' (_yil! 4^L»JI Ji£.ljill (_ T i^- *jjiaJI «.L2J1 

:^Jj l_^ ^-Aj CjljjLJLI Cju^^Jiaj ^.ufcLia ^j ' rt c>* (^psjL^jl 



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!_, up !_■ ■■■ 1 1 9 i^cLcLlpUl yjb$la.Jj\ pic ^S ^n^Sn 

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. lJlSjjiII LajJa I J j i "'I Loj L^J-a 4 ^j^-^j ^SL«J,I 
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(jl La II ( _i i ii tl (_2jjuj 4-LuaJe-^JI d_j^,jj qjt-ulaJ »"l~~ (_yill «LbLpl,l jl^>JI 
.jl^>JI 4-^/^Lmj jli o"i i nl (jl-a^aj 3_aj}L!l 3jjl^>JI 
i_dj| Jl^Lla Lil» ji-T «ULs 1 a j j 1 iLflj (jja (jSLaiJ V Ju3 La L^aicafu (jJLufc (jl 

. (3 jaJ9j) « I Laj» «LaM£ Cjj 1 n^ 
'"'L-'J ' "*"' *^- c ' A^J"' £ L'^>^J1 " 1 k"* 1 JjLxj V La I uaje 1S1 (jJLui (jl - 
4_o.LuaJLI 4JL1LJ1 dl 1 J J S <"l 1 1 tillju ^l_2)LxILa t js>- I ^j r\ ■*■ i.'u ^J^J LL 4-cSLa-a 
i(2 (a^j) « Jl>- tcj^s ...7cj^3 ^ j 1 j a ul V» 4jj1^>JI Cj^LcLajJI j^ ■ aJu «Liia-«J 
(jVaJjd! (jlj-fl>j (4 (a-Sj) «(_gj— Lc J_»-lj j j 1 " a3 i_Jj-jji (_LaItJeJ V 'LaM£La» 
. (The Interpretation Dilemma) j? j^....V.tl 4jJK i^iI ^^i^. »j^aj| (jljiilj 
(_a3jjjj (_jjj a i"i 1 1 3' J ' *"l Lr^ J^*"^' 4JL9 La (-iJ_pJ La I uaje "• liJLui (jl - 
V» jji^l «Lcjjiaj^ 7~ .' ' ^*"j iflJaj^JLa j_ic (JjSLj Ji^ LjJLutj 3Jl>-Ij 4-al£ J_t£. 
CjLJISLJoI (_,lr ^j ual\ ^ aL (Ji_aJ jJLl I juij . (5 fa^j) « ^ J 'J*,' 3 aK Jti^. «U (_i2j 
. (The Decontextualization Di lemma ) ^ii Mill LgSljm (j-a ol aKIl r'j^-1 
jLLjI (_y3 jl^sJI tLul «G^SLa (Jjj^sjj £yl (jSLa^J V La I caie ui (jJLLai (jl - 

3_j^jjj, (jj£i ji^ cjIj-iojij aIjlJ-"h ill ^jJI L»ijj jI^j>JI i—il^Tj S^LlUI Jjj^sI 



71 



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j_uLla (_,i^. r J ' a ' I ,' tj Sjj (J^JjJ,l ljuij)(3 (O^j) «j^uj>jJ! (_yk flJLi-IJj }L9» 
.(Maxims of Politness) jt^-JI (J& ajjutlil 4-aL»JI ._il.sVI 

«ljVl 3-s.j 3_JLSLi! ^^ki tjjiaJLi ^-SL Ijl&j .(6 (*-£_)) ^-o^i^^yl^. ■ La a& 

. (Preformance Dilemma) ^jl^-JI 
4-«£L>- (j£, (Jj-y *J 4jjLj/Lj j * i"ij V La SjLc jI_jj*JI i—aljJal Jl>-I (jl - 
«(_ 7 i-i u LjJt-LiLa (_ t JjlS Jj (jLS» (2 /oJSj j La i u) « I Jl>- 7c_go . . tc_go d " i j 3 ui V» 
Sjj^jll 2LiII <-3jjj SJjLe-a S_Jl£Lil (^ic gjiMI ^SU JjJjiil I JlAj ( I *Sj) 

(Egocentricity Dilemma) CjJlj*-I1I ,_£jJ SJlJoj Lj^l i _i Li " j 2 j j -> i a a LaJT 
(_^ plj-caJI SJl^>- S^Ljj (_,lr (j-Gji^tiU j\jjus\ fjjt 3_uJI (JjSj Ju3 LiLp-ij 

<ijjj>_! OLjJ3=_ul^L<-ul (J-LJJlXjJ,! Jl»-I Ajiiiii-u! I oK 4JI (_5-t*J ljuij .jl^>JI 

jh&\ 3-JJ-iUI oLlj^IjJL^XJ j^M <_2j_LJI ^IjLseiml jlj 4^jL^ala 

cGjjcv ^^3 jjiLiA j_lCj LiiiaLc IS^Lvu dJ 1 1 nj Ju3 La I Laic ui ijJLui (jl - 
(_, I r .- j laj U (j ab JjJjJ.1 I juij (14 (<s-3j) «.. a^LSULj <-;^j>Jj i— ueJ JL>-lj» 
I j.^^l ,^-^. LgJ 3_JlSLiVI ojuij (Indirectness Dilema) SjjiLys^UI v^jLIlSLil 
.(^jjlII jIjjsJI doLx-ii (_y3 sLcaLi- 4_j£L2j ' " 1 1 j i a j i a a. L$J (j^-Jj i4_JlL*JI 
5j Lalae q 2 j ij ( a I «ujJij (jl JLJj-J La ^_A^?e_) (^Lj ji La Lca^e-m uLILlA (jl - 

«(jja-*jj <-^Ajj JJ^J ' .' (j->"^lj» °j3j-^ iS' ^ o-"^ jljij (jj^ ^Ljtiisljj 
The Repetition) jl^>JI ^ jlj£J<JI SjjfcLLi ^^k. gjjLaJI (-y aL I jlaj ( 1 4 ra^j) 
((jj^jfaaJlj (_g^L>JI ^J . — ■ A tl jiajl) (Phenomenon 
(_jj| aj\jj>- (_y3 i_^jfc jjj ijIjjsJI pjjloj^ ^™ * "-° i^aae '"' liJLufc (jl - 
(jLijj 3JL>- edlc JL*-ljj» ..jIjjsJI pjjioj^j L^J 4^^LcV ^j^>-\ CjLcjjiaj^ 
^jjjfcLLi (_jlr -j laJL (^ aL J^J jJ,l I jufcj (14 (o\j) ^'bl jjLc _JJfc '-Sjk. (_>itaj 

. jjJl^ejJI j»j^.j «cjLLcuJI)) 

a"^I 4j^L2j jljii (j-o (jJ^i-^/l (_yJI JIiJl^ejJ LoJLi^. La I '^-» ui ijJLui (jl - 
^j a o a j q (jLS (j^Lb)> 4j^n£. ^J J ' ^* * L>"Tr-i 1^**^° hj rl"v2tl cLiiJI aJljt" i u t 
4-a-LSjLa «L2j^Lij 4_u^>-2! Cj LaelLa-LaJ^ Ll (jla^j Sjjji cAj "^ Seej "una jjj 
4-j-j-LJa (J_H_i 3j_iiLk> (_7k. -J LajU ^ aL j-a^l Ijukj (I4jo^j) ((3d » ' La i a q j 



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1 1 j I i si ' . " i Va 2 1 1 ji Cj I j-ljjLJ I (_gj"i i u a (_ji£. lO^*"' lj-'I <: ^ = -^ (j-° JL£*^' 
(j I «jj (_Jjj>-I ^ jlj'^"-'" 4jj/IjJ (jL<-<-u W 3-iJJ^-° ^Jj'^*- <— ^1 Juki jjij I I Jl^Jj 
i(_gjJtiJI jijSJI J^>«j (Linguistic Code Switching) Jila 2_i£.L«ivl 2j^AJ (o-ufcLiaj 
2_i^L>JI 2 i 111 j .U aaeoJIj jLtljVlj rLajjVI (Defference & Involvement) 
.(Linguistic Social Club) La 3-Li^a jl 2_i£.L<ii»-l 2x.jju*-a-> 

(^pa^-ijj i _ 7 _t_LiLij1 <L3jre->- (j_a >-"' 'JJ-^ O ^ q ^"' * *-* '^ > ~»- ■"■ cdLuk (jl - 

*LlL-uVL> dl! i (JjL2jj i^jLc oJj" mi o< sua Ji-Jj Vj k±<jjoJI SjtaV <GL-uLjj 

( 14 (O^j) «••• La_j£.j ^ i aij • _* i a o LI (j^-3 (_JjjSJ| gUxi^aJ lj» . .(jj^i-VI (j-a 
Si La j i oJI a ^Ij-uo^l i ^U-^- 2JjLx-a 3j_aLLi /_lc c j i a 1 1 /, all (J^JjJ.1 ljuij 
. (Conversational Floor Domination) 2j.>L>J.I 3jl.il (jrLc- 
SjiJjLjfo 4-lal 1 11 1 t (((j-J^i-VI j_lL>Lj» 4_lLc J^ 1 nj La LLaie-iSi liJLufc (jl - 

j|^>. U ^ 1 7-jj-uj < < < r nt S^Lc L*Ui (jjSjj . . 3Jj j-SJLI (JjVjJI sLal£L>-f ^ a S "j 

^ J £ 2 nl'^JLl L^JLSLJuLi ^ j 1 a flj L$J AjJiJ i_2_jj-u ( _ 7 jJIj) tfjti^. 2jj_aLi!l 2_lL3-»JI 

Sjj/jtill jj-oLulII (jc VI oji^tlj jsJ (_g JJI 7-^1 i_dJj» .^js*} S-iLu^iijj SjjIjj 

3j\_jLc (_>Ii-a (JjLtu^ (_£.} ' Jj'V" ..(J-JjJI (j^. dJLcuJj (Jjjj>-}U (O^jJI (JjSjj 
tjz±c i j 1 >i 1 1 (_j-2Jj ljuij (15 (O^j) «(j "0 '"ill 7-jj^3J «L*j^d!j JJ-al (_£.} ..(J-UJ 

. (Presupposition & Framing) 2 Sj mil i^jL^lj^aVlj j_lLq]I ^j^kLLi 
i2JijL>J,l *1_ljI ■•'! aSjJI ^^Lc J-ojjiJ tiuj^JI i_aljial J-jLp f-LSjl (jl - 

' ajiail Lil jjl dili (jL? Sj-lxII C^ii-j i^jlj-iajdll tj^i 2^3jJI cJLU I jl SjLlS 
-" J a ^^3 jlj^'i/l ' a LlaeJ La 3jji^ LiLp-lj ijl^sJI ^Lajj Jti-Lj (jU jJ>-VI 
Oj_l1jlj J-S «La>L^ *I_ljI 2^3j 4J| (-SljJa^l Jj>-f 4j JLxaAJ L^a jjsVl I jui 
IjLXjUajjxVI i_2jiaJI pjLuJ LlLp-lj iCjJLajJ^JiOjjjJ Lll jjl jjxVI i_2jiaJI 
Ijjjjla iCbJcaj L^J^L>- (j a j ^ajl CjJLajJ,! i_3jJaJI iJiuJl>- *Lij| «ua3^JI j^Iijj 
^_3 jj I a j U 1 1 CjjLajj Ji^ Lufcj .CjJi^tjjJ jjjJLj <l) tt 1 n" 2_uL^J 2^Sj L^JI 
(j_a (J^'ii «QAaj ^1 (_yi^. j-^3! (Jj^l 1— 3jiaJI ^1 tcjIojj ljuij 1 cUajeU I (J-uAj 
i±ijJ^>JI ^^3 pj-^" lSJ-" ' *J ta U JJjJI (.yLac I Ji^ 4JI (jj(3 («J 2_uLj I tLLaJ 

. 'Uj-Sj (jl JJ^J La (J-aSj (_yl>- j 0" 1 im^ 
LaJ^: jLS-VI i_3jJaJI 2jlLLH, lIuJi^JI i-Sljial Jbvl j La 1 aj LiLp-l 4Jj 
I 1 J " IjJ-i 1— *J>J3 '"'j caJI 3jjj ijs>- (jl .«GJl>-j ciuJi^JI pLSjj 2x.jjji jljjj 



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jai-^j Lt (j^Lsji) (j-Gji^tlU (j\J (JjL-ujJI 4jj_Lil3j CjI oKIl (_ T i«-a JjJLxj ^^3 

.(14 (<^3j) « «Gjj^5 «L«Ju 
<", ^ ,^.tlj lJlSjjJIj ' " I ia i a 1 I SJl>- 3j_AUiaj jjLaLilj (19, 18) (j^JjJjJJ (j! 

^jJb (_ajjjj . (Stress, Silence, Pausing & Interruption) jl^-JI tLul 3jlL>L2II j 

sLljI <UtJa Lfl-t I j ' " i a-uaJ |j (_Jl3jIl!I a j J a I Jj.^.A" j ,*:.<- ^^jQJI J .^,^11 ^jj 

jl^-JI Lsjia LgJJiJJ iTjVjLe-a 3.iLc liJLui oj^i 4j->L>JU sLul ^ 4J| - 

jJs j-a'i/l I Jlj^j '^j"l all I Cj Lc j-cbj-a ji fj-cbj^ J-^^' (_^r i-aljia'i/l Jl>-I 
Topic Agenda Conflict jl CjLcj_iiajJ,l 3_a-jLa flj naj « . nj La ^1 J'^_* 

Tciiajl JulJj ij!^>JI i—aljiai L^ajLa-" i uJ SjjJLc CjLisl-uI^IL-uI pjj^jJJ I Jl^J_j 
(j-C CjJLa-lJ Lt£..J (j^s^Li.)) pjjiajJ,! *L$J! Jj^ ' Sj-taJI (JjL>. L«_Lp. liJ-li 

« L-LjLcLiivl 3-L-u^a^a (2>C- CjJlxjj V joJj» (12 (0-^j) lilli ( _ T 3 4 >> i a L*_iia^a 
fl Julg \jjt (j^» ( I 3 /cJSj) PjjIsjII *L$jLi dJLujilII Jj^l <_3jlaJI JjL>. Llflij 
S-jLjj *_a) (14 ra\)) «i_!j|jji ljufc» : ^LjLs ^jJliJI i Sj La 1 1 tfj^LiS «J^-I p_jj (j-o 
Jj^l i ajJaJI (2>cil Ll&j (LgLt^Li 4l!jJLa ,_£jj_iji^ ^Ir 4jjj^3 Sjjj /_^ 4-JLc 

^^ll! 4 i-il"i-^J,l 4_L»l3jLfljJI CjISI j i nil ^^3 d '.j^l ,>. ^j ^^o^jJI jl^j>JI ' . i ^ I iaj 
(j^LJj i^j-a-O-U J-oLlJI (j-o pJ-i-J (_g^L«JI CjJiJtlll L^jJI <-^aiLj V La S^Lc 
ajj^ill 4-JajtJ V 5LuI ajj 2 ^jj taj 4jjI^j>JI 4JLtal -ij-ij jLtal (_y3 L4J 1 ^ht'h nj 
31 <TMitl jl (jj^i-VI «_o (-aJllII aj£. ^1 ^^1 (_giJI «Lc^Jj LlaJJI sLilal ^^Lc 
jj_a Cjj_iL», /- I c -j Ca II Ja-L ■■"' ( _ T lII CjVjJjU! j>J-A (jl .(jLj^-al (_)J»JtJ ( _ T 3 
(j-a ^ "*■ fp ' I Laj Cjl^_uJtJ (j-* (J^^-l La 4_L3l^_a 4_j_4-Ai jj-p jl^>J1 CjLjS_j_aLtJ^ 

L^jI^jjLj i— il 1 n->,j j!jj>J1 «Lij| Sjjjila tux. L«i>- 1 j Aj 1 nAJ SjjJLI cjLisejjI^Pjji! 



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(J_i_»^5jjJ 4_i Jj La ' ' La aiVcS, J«-3jJ a J 2 Sj Cil mi^LJII (_y3 J^i-jJI 3j-^>- (j-o 
|j_$j 2 ?U"1,1 (jjvljll! ^yk: <_ijjul!j JjjjjJ,Ij Sholl -jljJllj ->JoJ.t >i^l 
CjLlS!_i_oL(JJ djLjLila (&4^ (_y^ '^Lc SsLii (j-^aaejj ^lottl Jjj i ntl jji j-o^l 

2jo it? c^Jl£ Lui (j-° • • • 2 ri I" ■-»J, 1 2_uj_uJI cjLlUx. jM U.V JjVI 2_LJJI JiU-i 

( _ 7 i^. Ln-aTL^e-oj . .2_oLc ^ axaj j uajtJI I Jufc till 9 1 u jj-o jjLa i2jj_p- j_o2l I JUfc 
JJ-ol (j a j i.aJe-j jl j-La-Ll I CjL^>-j ^^3 jLv ji <j-"5u i_2^tl»-l < < < r ni (j-u-<J 

( _ 3 -3 jlj^>JI Cj LlSLi-O Lb J> djLjljIaJ -■ J fl 1 1 ijj-oj ( _ t C^JI aJlC I. i j i m I t(j n'vttlj 
( _j-2j_l3 (_j-3 Zj-lJ-ihi 4 j j I 1 11 jLjI (j-a j j .^.^11 I jLjfc 4jJiJ*j Loj (Jj^l ALflJll 

^_a 2Jj g 1 ii^ij j 1 ihj L^jjJl»- (^^ij (2)SL«i,l (j-o q\£ (jj-II 2J3j_i!lj jjl ii miiVI 

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dJJi j-j-C. J Jl_«_*JI <JliLiL2Jj (J I or ^/l i—iUej^si <j-u 

SjjjjUJi a ni~c^Jii ovum ^ i^iji^-*. Vpi^jl^ 

"° J "'.' «l-t*3L>JI dAJjJ i4_j£.Lxi>- VljJ "t-u-uLojLjJIjJ 

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5 t jj j 1 iU CjLcbjLUI pl^J' J ' a se J (jl t^^X-i V LuLs 
1 JjJljsJI JljljI ^^Jl )«— <-uljJ 3 "' ' iJu * O^ '_> J - a iS 
c-ljjf jjfc .}Jije-o J}Lla-i (_,-3 aj uaa» L'l'cSL«i-i (_g JJI i^^Jj 
: ( _ T li L«_l3 L&jja-jjj A 1 1 11 MjJl (jtlajLajJI 

:>j^*li cJLaJ glut - 1 

a-^jlilU i_aljJaVl jf (jLfljIaJI g-g*lM La Ijjj-*J 
SIjLjaj i_3jjlj La jl 4Sj~ miU cLseljjaXI /t^lo jl IjLjja 
Qa^SLjjj i(j 1 1 " L-«-J-3 OUjiii (_£JJl 1^11 nSlj iji nSl » 
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...«_l«j>JI Lg-La JUii" 1 11 j 3jjL*-a CjLsLojI t_jl\ (Jjj^sjl! 
» LH-2 j (ji J_j Vj . . i_2j_13 j_p * j i"i~ Sj-fJ^ Sj j la 3 Ttjla (_ji^- (J-»*JI (^1 
(_p»jl *"■ II l—l I Ja-fl ( _ 3 -3 1 La 1 "j (Jj.Lv (_jJI (Jj_t*3jJI (j_a Jj 2 «ULi (jLajiaJI 
jjjlaj ( _ T ji I Jj'j" (JLSjJaJI JjLxj (_ T l!l 'LuisjLuJI oL^jl-uIjIL-uVIj . S^ibtHXI 
(_yJI 0j_aj j^Ia j Loll! I ^l-^ 1 - 1 f J ' "J^J «L«jL2JI 4J3}L»JI (Jjjuijj (j-iiljJI O w 3' J '-^' 

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. Lgjjt.il (_,i^.J d-LiijjLfllLlI sLlLojiJI jjjji ( _ T 3 Ij-j3Lj 



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j-o^I f-jslj (^ j_<fc lLj mjVl ^ 1I1 II (^ a^ in II 3_LLiC 3JL>- ^ SJlxjII 
(j-u 5j-oL>JIj S-^jjIj". nVI <iJ3^L*l! I j la ' 3_L>L_u^JI 2 jl-T~ (_y3 j-pcio i_ajJa 
lLsj i uaJl jJjJ 4 iil"iTc-a '"^JJ'^*"" '" * * (j' Cr^ 0-4 ^ '"" ^-^ • •iJtH' j > j - u L3 ^i>°' 
*l__>_tiJI (j-o JjJjJI )«-<»->-l Jl2Jj .jjjJI IJ14J 4 la _'"j 1 1 (j£.LaHJ! CjLjSLLaLbjj 
(_j-3 ^jJlj>JI JljljI fjj] sLa^vLJ <JJ_iLi (j a a ua-jj I «L^-j c?-^- j • ""* (jl (_3^Lc 
4j^sL>- CjLaj^U L^Jjl jl (_y3 Ja-j i uj jl LlJu i—Sjia J^>-J CjLoJjL?_lo (J^l <"ii iiI 
jjj^IuJjjv ^ Ijij JlSCjbLuJI (jt cdJli Vj ... (jjjJaSJI aJLc Spa ^ 

t_!j^e_l a LjJLl I /j I C 4-j!jJiJ3 j I La I a (j-o Sji^tlll CjuV^JI x_a (J_aljiill J^^J 
«_o <tlaL»3 (^ (jL\j n-L!l JlJLl>- (jlxaJajdl (j^jjill 'LiCj Jala Sjjji^t^ «bt>u 
i Jl-ljlj Jl^>- (_j.1I (j_il i ii II (((-JU^a i nil jLsoVI)) J<"n nl Ji^ Sji^eiil CjLjVjJI 
«LaL>o (jj/j^JI (_,*iii (_yJ^ J ' «a *»•_' (jl pi Laj i "I (jj/j^JI tljjiJI Jijia LoJajLa 
i I 972 ^Lc. (J^jl^pl (j-* ?"^-*_u 4_^nj-iD ^>-^l C^^ O* ' ' l»^-A jj^Lv (j-a (J-t-iajvj 
CjIj^JI (Jj^- 1 iJlJ SJ lillj Jju «LJI (aJ 1973 j_i^1SI t_j_s>- (j-<iJ ^ijr^*- CaJlSj 
SjUjkJ (jAJjiaiej CjbLJI aLs JjjIj^oI iLajV S^jjiII (_>ajl ^jJI S-iSL^o^l 
4-l1J3 ^^ oi-^a-l ^J^' SjJajJ | : l£Lj^o| »^o "ii^LCla j^lC 4i_>-«-o (j-a «Glj^ 



79 



!_, up !_■ ■■■ 1 1 j i^cLaj^ULidjlAjJI pic ^s o,o \Sa 

: Cjl.ii i ii II (Jj-2j LL&j ijl_ Lll (jj^-k 3 ! <— isj-i jl^J3 jl Ju-ol 3jijaji,l jo-o^l (j^ 
aLjI S^ iSig (_£J^a (_,i^.j ti*-& cr-*- 1 ' J*-"' (J^-* 3 ! l - '"^3 ' -"■*» ij ^ * " 0^ J^2-!» 

a JLJr" i nl «L*Jj-ul 4ijJlil (_yJ3 l-yljj SjlstiJll CjuVjJI LaLx-l L$-^>^1.'J <_JjL>-l 
CjuVjJI ililjJS (j-° i_P Jit)- 1 S^ 3 (j-* 4_uQjl oalajj I tlulSj . «3j_a (Jj^ 

OjuiJ . . jLJI Jj^LLsl lJiSj JojUlU Lto ( _ t j t jjj3jjjiJI ^LsoVIj AjSj^-o^I Sji^tlHI 
(j>lcV Sji^tiU CjLjVjJI di! j J-3.5J i^ylLjLSjjj !_gj£l i nr liJj^o ^-Vp Sj^aJI 

jJLIj . . (^L-L-i-aj^-u ijJj^so (_g^ Lc^jj l-Sj (jTj LaJal I (_gjjjJI ^1 j<"n nVI 2JL>- 

CjI^I i ii II (J^l i"i i nl *jj La a» (J^_lSLjj_o2| (jiJjj moll Sj-Lsi-JI ojufc CjjS] 
SJl^ejJ,! CjuVjJI «_o (_^aL»lUI jji (jl£0jL<i>-l (jl ra£-jj (j"GjJL!l (j-u '"" iV-al '"11 
Sji^tlHI CjLjVjJI i_£Jji (_y3 SjjlLII 3'jJ' L>° ^" o! ^JJ<? "'^ "illjJLa (jl cfj^p- 

J14J (_ 7 £j^a^/l >Uj . ..jjll «_a J^LjuJI I Jj Jl3 4JLs jLii-VI I jui *^^=-J 7c-i^3jJ 
, a, j ,^"11 | j LJ ij (j< j 1 k.ll (jGjill ■ " « I i a a I " . I/' I jj'a <_^<J (_ylll 3 flJi LaJI 

in U^t, .Ml (jLtila)) _i «Luj/LuoJI (»jl»JI Cj Lu.il (_y3 i_2jjuj iCjI jLuJI tfjLvl 

. Tyrany of the weak 

(_yk: (jJjVl iSjistUI CjLjVjJJ (jLjjiaJ «U jl^jjjVl *Jslj ^ till jLuJ! (jl 
(jl^ 4_cSLtj ia)l i nil j^"**-" (_,lr 5jml i noil 4jlr (jjfcljj (_£ JJI i_iC^UI L$Jj£ 
(_g^L«J,lj (JjjIj^jiV jo-la^JI (jjjo-iijl 3jjj-3 liJLLii (jl «LuLlII SjJajJl (^ liJj Jj 

1 J_A <_il La S3 ■ "I 2JjLx-o (_jJ3 4jLi5ejjI^1jj<I lUi£ (<sj (j-oj iJL>JI <bt-ulaj «U 
(j j 1 se ~ I (JjjIjjjiI u^G- ttaiLJaJl (j^ 4_cSjs-i (_J jJI Jl^JI (_jJI i_jjkj3 ila-j i uaJI 

.4jjjj«JI tJL^II 



HFred ikle( 

5_»_aLa_l 2 _i i iiLajijjJI vllLjIjjJI J^Jto (j£, jJj-3 i^JJI -" jl I 4_iLj^ (_y3 

<_aljLjfc! L7 i^. (jj-yi (jlajlii'ill pl^J 1 ^ L^j '" aj Fredlkle j»J^ . (jjLl».j^>. 

:^jVl£ (_3-*J *Ll I Sjja 4 i iiq-^JI «Luji-ujJI (_p3jLfllUI 
( Extension) 'iUsJLa ^.ir, jj ljLjjLojI jl« Jjv! ^j-o (jJ3jLaUI -I 

CjLjjj^j jl CjIJl^jij jl CjLiJJLfljl J^ai (Jjjlaj (_^>-i (j-o (__>IoJLflIlJI pjj (JjSjj 

^tj 2 jj< , ,.i- cj^| j^ , ,r t ji 2_ujlo <ijl«Lfl£.l Jiu 2jjj>J,I (-aljJa'i/l (ji_> 2jijIJ3 

(_g^jjl II (jUlil l_jJJ^pJI jl JLi«JI C.I U^»l Jji (Jj^l , -^> :>, J•' Dj^i Ljjij ...1>JL>-I 



80 



CLujglajxIl .clgjlg JjblajJI £ Ijll 

. I o frjia-i ji ^j< aj U 1 1 .3 2 j 1 1 , „ v2jIj_uG ^1 
( Normalization) 4iiM*J1 «; ; *-»" JjvI jj_« (jJsjLojJI -2 
. d<J3J^ (J^Li>-l *L$JI J I «Lu-uLajlj.} 4J3^Lc (j nji nl3 SjLcl Lufc aj-i-aaX I J 

1 1949 aLc 3jlj*-III joja'i/lj (JjjIj-<-uIj j'^" (ji_i 4Ja}L*JI Jlilo Ikle ■ . <j • iajg 

.j S" i no j-^c ^>- -^J^JJ (JljS lJlSj -Jj^jj c5- i '- c - Jtl^ L - ^3-° tyliifi (_gl 
( Redistribution) La <_3jJo 7cJLuaJ La c-Ltbji j-jjjlJ LJLbbjLi^ -3 
i_n i n-v (_ 7 Jx. Lo i_ajia -— 1 1 . . — . t c-Lcisj'iil j_ujjj JjS i"i" Lufc i_2Jl^JI (jj£Ljj 

jLl>-2|j j^Jillj JjJL^ill jji ( _ > IojLiiJI I JLA f-jLi 3 d_£~i '- a 3-iLcj . . js>- 1 i_ Sjia 

39 (jjjjLo (_yi ^^SLufuiJI (j^ijjjJI jljjt Lgc (_yi LuUI jLt»-l jji Villa j^J^Sjj 

. . (jU>U oj>L) ijij *nl ml (_,!£. 
( Inovation ) AjjLS^LiVI LJLbbjLoll -4 
. SjUJL>- a i ii i nj-a «Liiuj2 ^J^>^\j£il\^ SjjJL>- 4J3^Lc (jli- 3-* "-* Im^jiX Ij 
diiol (j-oj .i_aljJ32l (j^_i CjLs}L*JI djLjLila ^^jjju 4Jl_Ju (j-« Ui^i lS^' j-azl 

. dUj 4jLi Laj 4$j" miU «Luj|jj2l J}jjjJI 
( Side Effects) 2Lu%J! LJl^tlil CjL±>jL*a -5 
<_3Jl^JI o>£j * lt-^' (jojLoill 2 i a 1, 1 cjIj_uQJI dJJj Luk ikle J • a *jj 
^-k\j-&*$\ j_a I i it a j i a 2 1 1 J_i iS-jJsLajl j-jSjj jl 3^' cj-'I d-^j^JI L^-La 
i3_«-jLJ3 ' iuc (J Lax.? (_iJ3jj , Jl ,^.~VI |f JiLL>JI Jiu i(_)l3jl alU SjlsIjJI 

^^Jl (J-iJ < >■ " 1 1 j pljLj>JLj aLj-aJ Ij ' •" Lajj I i >.alj^ c-\l U* , ,.lj 3A^be-a jl 

(74) . r 



81 






t_lj_»_iil SLpJI (jLj^ji ^^2 (JLsJI d *J. ,' *Lj-aL». 
JljJljJI «G_ifo^LLa jlisl fjJs (Ji. Jjj i«_<i^.| jsJUJIj 
jtlj^JILj (_, o i iU La i_2j_*3 (j i l aajj IjtjfcJ ijjL>JU (j-o 

JjL-ujJL jLuj I jufcj iMarketing Mix ^ ^jj • ..~tl 

Jal mi it! "^Ji iU^iUA»~t La <i£j_<i jj^a (j-o <L« gall I 
Jl>-LJ 2| (j 1 1 ajj (_£JJtj i;uLt,u 4-SLtlUI (j.2jj i ii'itl 
4JLj_uj (Jj-"-^' (j""-° <J^ " ** g" HI jLp£.VI (JUU 
^jjm>1II i t_JL_utj julXxuuj\j juuljCu\^ CjuIuI *-^t>- (J-« 

j-j-L^a^jl c^u j-Aj iCjLaLSiJI j-i£-$ (Ji-l-i 4jjj<L(Ji,l 

SjjI^VI 5-^l-u1j"ii nVI a j j a a ^Ir j^j-J V LuLs i Lui 
2_' LtaJuJIj <LaL*JI CiLmlj i nil *_il3» 4-lLulj 4_i^>L>JI 
L^LiJt-ijJ 4Sj_iiuJI ji ^ i la * 1 1 j^j 3.3UJ (_^ a I J i u^l I 
SjljVI (2^-J (3 J infill "LlU^. (^J J^-«jJI i_^>^' (jr^ 

LaLuTj^i Ll&Jj . (76) . (7S) L^jdlj ^jllj LkJ! 
/j_jjj_lILi «LcaL>JI 4-lSjj i ."ill ol_i3c_ijl^pjj/VI (_yl^. 

(j-a CiLi_-^_lj1j "i i nVl oJl^J Li T^J-UI (j^. (j^LcVlj 



85 






< _, upli ■■■ llg ^rln'i^UI (jiglojJI pic ^9 ^n^Sn 

. 2_oLc cLflxaJ (^jlajLfljJ! (_j-lIL-uIj CjVL>J, jljILol 



Innovation Strategy: <U jli«dSI 4«AMiif jmiSI - I 

jLajl (jJ! /yii i M j La (_2jj3 ji 2£_>_<i Lg-ojLJ-"i i n"t (_jjJI d_i3=_ul^ljj/VI (_5-*J 

(jjjSj jl L-iLLa^L "V 2JjL*-a /_i3 'jj3 *?*^J 3S>jjJI (jij 4jjU 2Js^Lc *Luj 

ija g o >J| 1 J_a> ' - ) I tHaXaa CjLlCj * j mi" ^_^_HJ 1 L^jL«Jl>- jl L^jL^j_U jj<3 o^ 
j'^'l 2_j^J<_a 4_2jjJaj CjL*-uJi,l /tjj^l! «(JLl3jJI «L-uljjJI (J^L>- (j-o til! jj 
r-LlJLj (Jl alaal 2jj L >-'^ 2£j_»i aLj^ JL\1,I Jjj i n ^Ir . (jj i n^LiXI ^ I » a J Lx-a 
x_« (j 1 ' a rt j j g ■"■ i _ T J3 «t_l_jL_a> CjLuiS 7-^l3j . L$J ^j i nil JlJ^. r* w ' ^*" «L»Jl>.| 
a j i a a ^-3 Jila J£LI ^yiiU SjJl^J! «!JL^JI IJlA <j-o CjJjl>. . . 2_£!3 2JL^- 
*sJj .^^j-uLlS CjJSj (^ SjJls.'^I (j-U^Lo «_u ^1 (_Jj| (_£JJI ^_a"i?l j La fl 1 1 Jl^ 
(^ 2jjl£JLiVI tlj^j- (j-o (Jj iJiJ-cJi,! (_y3 SjjLCjjVI *!j^>- (j-a i La S.3 I JJt CjJl^ej 
J^vl ,j_o ^^-aj-JI jl^J! (jrS 2_taLiia 43tajjLa Cjjmljj-oI mJJ-11 (j>LcV! cljl j 

. ..2_iLcjdl 7-jj 3x.LJol 



Fortification Strategy: ^mAAnJI ^mAmi! jmiI -2 

aJljJt" i nl CLi-^st-i SI ill i U jl 2_Sj_iJl I J a tajj (_ylll <ljja_ul^l<jiVI (_,-Aj 
Qj-o JliJc "i i ii j (^JJJ! s^LfljJIj (j^jjJ! (ji^-d ilajjjtiLI » I Aj " La "j L^JutS-ol 
(j^_j (jjl^j (_5-J-!l jl » i iial (JSLj-fli f_ 7 i^ da Lasell i2£j_iiJI CjLoJl>- jl CjLaHio 
i_d_ljl£ lJlLsjj S-jje-uIj"! nVI oJJbj . .i'II^j" i nt, I L^jlSJlJ (_yl!l 2 o j ? 1 1 j 2 <ii it.1 
■ Si mi (<ilt 2j i n'^LuJl pLiaj'i/l ^ i n-»o lr JjjjlII J^L>- (j-a 
, Ul A" ^Vl 4_i_Te_Ljlj" i nl j<s_<-ol 4_i_-^_lj1j "i i nVl j>JLA (_5^- j I aj LiLL>-fj 

«_ljJIj t^Lfl_«JI JjLU jlIjII (Jjj^sjj^ J-^P' j-°' (Jj4ui1i Retention Strategy 
j^Ci CjIjJJ jl Cj^Lvj jl tUauSu I (J-fl-tJ 4 mm iijJll -""j" uLl>-Ij CjLv^JLjLCJLi 
fLjj^jjt^ILuiV! aJJb -Uilutj ijUjlS ... Lic^LaJl L^-i c_iJuj><j <^fl^a CjLcj^Iaj^ 
jl 7y_H_LJLl (- I c sLojVI (_,i^. "ij^oLiJI 4-l2jj i n"itl CjLisejjI^ILijiVI (ftlajua (JILa 
(j>Lc:^l \j-&, (_p_o ...t-cJ^JLtt (j>Lc^l J>U- ,3-a j^flj>JI (j-fl>i (^ 2<tintl 



84 



L$-ij . . . 5jl j mi i~i i n j I L^_»l» *_>JlJj (J^-^-i *-^*^>- l>^"'-9 O oju&Aji 3jLu_u £y£. 



i.B.M^Jj: 

^1 3_be_a (^ ->j'>" JrP^" '^ '- ,Jl ^ ij^EJjI^pJ-oVI aJJt jLUI ^j 

c- 1 U ^ I.B.M 3_£"j_i_i ^ AjtAjtl ij^JI jjjIj (jx: Sj jflMitl Economist 

^^-S JLjjLjio (J_0sjjj -iJ-^-J 4Sj-<SJI Sjl^l <"<ii mi"iS| Juila JJJ J CjjjjejJI 

C a^ c- li jQ 1 (_ 7 J-ti «o^_cuJl CjLt_u_a «o^>.j CjLjtULa ^^ LlL_u ^jI Lx_a tCjL*_j_u,1 
(J-AjJlII I JUfc (j-o (^Lu V I J iS lj i L^jLjtlil SjiliLo 3j_<JLca CjLSjjI/ I j . ..al " 
,j_o 4-$j mi tl o Jlj* (_^fl J JJ U- llj lijLsejVl c.lUa jjLi | |r I j_A i2bj£jj,lj 
CjIjLlLo 6 (j a '"' 5-Sj mi I La ijsJLlII |_gj" i u a (_ji£- 4joUtl CjLcLLaill J .>»ai 

(Jjjj 3>jI-». (_yi^. IjJ ia» J^ I feuo-Li (jl LiS" ipl La-2JI I ju* (_5-l^- LjjiMi jVjj 

4_l--a_Ljlj "l I ill I ^ U j " ^i 5_Sj mi tl 3jl.il (_j-Lc (jLS (*-* (I)- ,? iOLlLjjLajJI ^^ 

CjLjLCa^l oJJb ';'>■" V lijJJE-J LgjLil£Lalj L^jj-uLCa ^Ir ila LflJcll £/l .^»-»"tl 
. L$-Lo «LuuLlII «Li^sL>- CjuISLo! (J^lj J-J^SLi jjj^sl Cjl£j_<i «_o 4 i n^LUI (_^ 



Confrontation Strategy: i\tfkal§AI ^mAmi! jmi! -3 

|_gj <^~ I t 4 Ml I llj-1,1 j| 3_Sj_iJI I jAUj" (_ylll OUlJL-Olj^L-uVI dJJj (_,-Aj 

(J^Li- jj-a 4£j_iJI ( _ T I^. *l jQ£.Vu AJ-23 mJjj>.I 4 i ii^Llo CjLSjjji jl CjI mm njj, 

«l*jL5JI /j o-i-i j»j-53 (jl <i£j_iiJI (_,i^. (jLa joj (j-oj n-dJi 4jLJo La jl oLcLful 
jl » I i ii It <i_Ljsejijij3 (JjLij/j J^Li. (j-o A J J 2 < T" ' i-ifljXI TH- 1 ^ 5 ^ J^*" (j-° 



Harassment Strategy: iTnjIihU §1 jl jiwiSI i »AwJt>wil -4 

( _ T 3 j_uQjl i—SJl^j 4_i3=_uI^1jj/VI ojui La 4 mm nj-a jl ASj^li I ajjaj Luij 
^JLc iUi .^.tl j| ja^J ja^jLtjU^ ,_Ljl2jJ (jJ^jjAu /jl i^*"K ^ , n^LUI Cjul£_ol 

a mm njJ.1 jl 4Sj_iiJLi j«_tjJ1 JLvj «-3.} jl nj -1 ' "^LUI cjLljL^o (j-o jLal! (j^cjjJ.1 
t_ij_^c «Lc.jt j\ jIjjLj (j^ i ii'qLUI ^_ya (_Lj-ii) 3-u^Lc.^l 31xj>JI J^L>- (j-a jl 



85 



< _, upli ■■■ llg ^rln'i^UI (jiglojJI pic ^9 ^n^Sn 

^aji^Ltuil 2 ,,K„jII jl 3^ Milt 2-ijejj^Ij 2jjUI ^LJlSLoVI c^j£ I jj U-u-u 

(jU i »3il (_j-2 j j J i ^- II (j-o I J "" a a. ^jlr da Lnadl 4-JLc 3_l>-L1JIj 4jjI£J1jI 

aSj mi I ^Lila Vj£ l£j£LII 4^jji 3^^>-L^a 3JL>- (^ L^ '^i^ ' '<* < a j j ^jl^ 



Quality Strategy: 6jg»41 4nt $*!> > <awJI>il -5 

3j_ulIU,1 Cjl i n ( nJJ.1 Jl CjlS^_(Iuj1 ^yZJLi <J^3 (j-« 4_pt_u1jli_u 2M 0jJb ' ^fc>j"j 

(j-ut-a Mjj"' ' " 3 1 ' to I £o» 21 (J^L>. (j-* ^J^JJ ' "" ^"" ^* ^ Ct - ^ ' ^ "*■ ' ' 4_»LiAj 
l_£jJ (J-iiajLo Sj^>- Mjj" ' 'i a (_j-3 LijI.3 L^Ll^j Lu 3-oJii»JI jl r-QJVI 3-3^>- (j-o 
(<S-CjJI V J 3 >• J J JJ taj 1 1 'j j-^ ^Ir IjLilcl i2 i n'^UIl * I i nil ,jx. dJI^" I nil 

.. L^ajJjj ( _ 7 l!l CjLoJiitlJ 
2_jJ,L«JI 5 * a Mill CjI j (jlj-jja.il CilfTj-i j£! jj jU-o/f (iili ^yk. Jlla 
«L^-jJ C7~^ fQ-Jtla^q jl * i ij 0j\ ytlxA ^\-ujl\ £yi j_uiIL« pjj jl ^ < <i\j cUljjSjJI 

jl i _i j j U jl «Ujjlj ^Ue-a i_)L«ji jl 3jL;j£jJI (^y^IaJI 3_jJ3j^».J 2'al t\'.tl ( ^ 3-JLc 

. -| <l|)"lMn i ^flii.' '"" (>XJ» |_gjl Ml" Mi l 
Jj2j n_gLfuJI f-I^JI JL>-i (_>c (j^icVI I JlA J^'Sh (jJjjiJI jj^-»^JI (JjiJj 

jljjjII 3JjUt-o ^^a ((Quality ajl^Lj Quality» SjL^. (j^J£>jjjtl\ (j-diuJ.1 Jls-I 

«L^-j—«j 3j_*IjL_i_a 3jj_c£i_j 5 j— i l« C l I 1 4_i£.j_u1 ^_ 7 1^. ^L<ill£. 2(1 ^HaJLq ^j-* 7T~ ''■* 

4_L<u ^jJLjLII i) (JjL2JI i_3jjaI,I (JiiJi,! «Li5ejjIj1jjVI ojui (_yi^ 3 .' '.' ^*ii3 

.Sji^sJI (J^^ g'.UI S^^Jj J^-il Ij^* Jilo 3je-uaJ 1 '11^" mil 



86 



Primary Demand Strategy 

(- I r (- K II C-J-LaJI !_gj "una S-iljj (_yJI <_2Jl$J (_jjJI 4-t^e-ulj"i nVl ( _ T J*J 

t t_u-£2_Jl (_ 7 1^. 4^_tiuJl J l dim njJu ^Jj La> *_a CjLaJ^JI ji ^^ I * L^JI Cjl^fcj_La 

Lai iCjLjtHiU (j-a JlJ-"i i n a .}Ji£. S^Ljj J^L>- (j-a dlljj iSjLjjJI ojjfc (j-a j-j^l 
CjLaJiiJI jl > 1 1 nil q^sj^l SjLcl (Jj/Ia (j£. s jj-"J1 (_j-3 4jiLjJI 3-iLjj «U^L>- (j-a 
j_j_al_ji r*LLjl «LS^_joj ^j flj 1 qua . . . 4S^_tioJl *_a (j-tla LtlLaJj Ajjjua eLiLjj-LaJ 
gjl -^ La>l I j-j-al i ii II p^j CjI j (j_a P^- 1 (JfcjJ ' '"< 1 (fJJ ' " 19~?" ^-^Ljiu (JlLa) (j^-»-a 
(jLoIuVI 7=-i-a J I daj i a21]L f-£i!t (__>^>^3 (J^L>- (j-a J I ijLSLII I i^ajl d-ajij-" i imI 
(j-a J I dJjilj * 1 1 nl 3JjJl>- oLaljiJ-'n nl (jli- ij^*" lj-° lilljlSj . . . Cj^-C- j _5-*iI 
.2LajL>JI jl ^xUI ^yk: JLJS^U jUj-u^l (jiiii. J}L>. 
J^jJ i n"< II iJr 2 Cjljj*_u1^jj_u 2i I 0JL& (JILa ^j a j Laa&j ^Jj i^>LdILll (j_a JU^' 

.(80j79y8) j^vljSjbVlj 



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4_j_L^J,I Cl)lj_i_>JI J_Sj_a j-jju-a ^^.j^^j ^j-ajk-jjl -LlC . J Cilp I t^-^VI ^JlA j^Il) - 4-t-cJTJI a i u jJuU 

.(1994 Jj>jII4 ^J^jJ.1 L^JI U.J ^jjoIJI o*- h-^ ^ PMEC Sjlj^U 

:«^>-lj JLU.1 (J-t-mi (^Jlc "— )LjjLJ.I 4j_j-ku q a j LtaJeJ ?<_>.ljj,l ^j_a JuJlaJI <-iJLui -4 
- Brains Steven, J., Game Theory and Politics,New York, Free Pressl975, 

-Snyder, Glenn, Prisoners Dilemma and Chickens Models in International Politics- studies quarterly, 
15 March 1971 PP. 89- 87. 

5. Snyder Glenn & Paul Diesing, Conflict Among Nations, Princeton University Press. N. Jersey 1977,P. 
33. 

6. Ibid.,P. 37 

7. Ibid., P. 183 
8.Ibid.,PP.61:88. 

9. Archibald, Kathleen. Strategic Interaction and Conflict, Institute of International. Studies, University 
of California: Berkley, 1966. 



15 



!_, up !_■ ■■■ 1 1 9 i^cLcLlpUl (jiglojJI pic ^S ^n^Sn 

10. Snyder Glenn & Paul Diesing, Ibid P 52:55: 

1 1. Ibid., P.,282. 

12. Ibid.. P.130. 

13. Ibid., P.13I. 

14. Ibid., P.132. 
15.Ibid.,P.145. 

16. Ibid.,PP163:166. 

17. Quandt. William, Decade of Decisions, American Policy Toward the Arab-Israeli's Conflict, 1957- 
1976, University of California Press: Los Angeles, 1977 P. 165. 

1 8. Snyder Glenn & Paul Diesing Ibid., PP418- 340. 

19. Fisher, Roger and William URY, Getting to YES: Negotiating Agreement Without. 1988 Giving 
IN., Arrow Books, London. 

20. Ibid.. P.3. 

21. Ibid., P17. 

22. Ibid.. P.40. , 

23. Nierenberg, Gerard, Fundamentals of Negotiating, Harper and Row. Publishers. New York, 1973. 

24. Cohen, Herb. You Can Negotiate Anything Bantam Books, Inc. 1980. 

25. Forsyth Patrick. How to Negotiate Successfully A. Sheldon Press Book London. 1991 

26. Nierenberg, Gerard, Ibid., PP.90: 108. 

27. Ibid., PP.147: 160. 

28. Ibid., PP. 160: 170. 

29. Greenstein, Fred Personality and Politics, Markham publishing Company, Chicago-1969 

30. Sanford. Nevitt, ISSUES IN PERSONALITY Theory, Jossey-Bass Inc., Publish, ers, San Franbcis 
Co. 1970. 

31. Barber-James, Presidential Character, Predicting Performance in the white House. Prentice-hall 
Inc. N.J. 1985. 

32. Allen, Gary KISSINGER, Published by 76 Press, California- 1976 

- Caldwell, Dan Henry Kissinger: His personality and Policies, Duke Press Policy studies Durham. 
N.C. 1983. 

33. Murphy, Robert, Diplomat Among Warriors, New York, Doubleday and Companyl964, P. 384. 

. M L&J! !j^> JjVl *>J! £*.\j* <ya JjVl J^uiJ! (2) ^jX\ ^\j -34 
. 35. Brown. Gillian and Yule, George Discourse Analysis. Cambridge University. 1983, Press: 
Cambridge. 



16 



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36. Berlson, B. Content Analysis In Communication Research, Free Press N.Y 1952. 

37. Becker, A.L. The Linguistics of Particularity, BLS 10,1984. 

38. Labov, William, Sociolinguistics patterns; University of Pennsylvania Press, andOxford: Black well. 
1972, 

39. shuy, Roger: Topic as the Unit of Analysis in a criminal law case in DT. (ed) GURT Wastington 
D.C. 1981. 

- Shuy, Roger Conversational power in FBI Covert Tapes Recordings, in Lea Ke dar eds Power & 
Discourse. 1987. 

40. Hassan-Wageih, Hassan Going beyond Notional Functional syllabuses, a paper presented at SECOL, 
SECOL Review Vol. XI # 1 1987 A 

- Hassan- Wagieh Hassan Twoards a Field of Political Linguistics: Implica-tions for creativity in EFL 
Classes CDELT, Ain Shams University 199 IB. 

41. Chaika, E. A linguist looks at schizophrenic language Brain and Language, Vol 1,1974. 

42. Tannen. Deborah Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and LiteracyAdvances in 
Discourse processes Vol. IX, Ablex. Norwood. New Jersey 1982. 

43. Mallery., C. Computing Strategic Language: Natural Language Models of Belief and. Intention, 
Meeting of International Political Association. Washington D.C. 1987 

44. Samarin. William, J. Language in Religions Practice. Rowley, Mass: newbury House 1976. 

45. Hassan-Wageih, H. A Linguistic Analysis of Mechanisms Underlying Power ir. International Political 
Negotiations A Dissertation, Georgetown University. Washington D.C. 1989 (c) 

46. Edelman. M. Political Language: Words that Succeed and Politics that Fail Academic Press: N.Y. 
1974. 

47. , Political Language & Political Reality P.S. 1985. 

48. ,Politics as Symbolic Action. Academic Press, N.Y1 971. 

aXc '"'I ^ ~^J~J? c1 -t!-J_9- )l -^ <— )L5^L-*-JI fa-lc CjIjj*l5 <j-u ^uj-ui V I i±<.sc-l]I» 4_p._j _L<t-=e_a £yut3* -49 
4-*_aL>- i4_u_uLaajjJI d)L_uljjJl a Oj^e_JI J^j-a 1 4_u_u Lu-uJ I CjLujIjJJI t _£ t _2jj_ya 21 CLi^e-JI t« ujilJl 

. 1991 4-^lj,,i1l ^^i«Jlj jI.^VI ^l^-Sj-aLUI 
50. Onuf Nicholas After International Relations: The Constitution of Disciplines and their Worlds, 
Paper Presented at American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illnois, Sep . 1987. 
5 1 .Azar, Edward, The Conflict and Peace Data Bank (COPDAP) Project Journal of t Conflict Resolution, 
Vol. 24, No. 1, March 1980 pp,. 152-143. 

52. Weinstein, Brian: The Civic Tongue: Political Consequences of Language Choices Langman, 
London. 1983 . 

53. Bell, David, International Negotiation & Political Linguistics Unpublished Paper, York University, 
Political Science Dept. Ontario, Canada . 1988. 



17 



(jJujLljujJI 9 ^clouLpUl u^glojJI pJx ^S ft.nsnn 

54. Lasswell, Harold, The Language of Power in Language and Politics: Studies im Quantitative 
Semantics H.D. Lasswell & N. Listes , George Stewart Publisher Inc. N.Y. 1949. 
55.Becker, Ibid p .11. 

56. Habeeb, M. William, Power and Tactics in International Negotiation, The Johns. Hopkins University 
Press: Bultimore, Maryland, 1988. 

57. Hassan- Wageih H., in 45 Ibid ppl55:170. 

j-uaULsJ K-jSij M i ' ^**"~ /^jJi J ^j^ai2ul\ CjLjojiJ jj u * a ^jji Jj^sl^jJI (CjIjJlS) diULai Jal Jl>- -58 

c*_«j ^j 59 ^ <58 ^ JjVl J ua^JI /JjVl *J^JLi (I) f-^ljJLl cj-^ 5 -^j^ j'^' <^UL£ 

-5_ 1 _uljjJI oju* ^ L^jJ] cjLsLl^VI j^«; 

59. Rubin, J. Study of Cognitive Processes in Second Language Learning, Applied, Linguistics,22,l 17- 
31, 1981. 

60. Chomsky, Noam, Language and MIND, Harcourt, Brace and World Inc 1968. 

61. Carroll, John Language, Thought and Reality, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1984 

62. Searle, J.R. Expression & Meaning, Cambridge University Press: London 1979. 

63. Austin, J.L. How to Do Things with Words, ed by TO. Urmson, Oxford University, Press: London 
1962. 

64. Labov, William and Fanshel, David Therapeutic Discourse, New York: Academic Press. 1977. 

. I987*L*_Lu3 4jt-abv i*2iyij 5_iillj jla-UI L*y Justus 4111 Jl^ -65 

.j_iiLJi 4-<J£ (65) <^j «_>-jJ,l (j-ujij -66 

67. Nimo, Dan. & Ungs, Thomas. Political Patterns in American Conflict Repre sentation & Resolution, 
W.H. Freeman & Co. San Francis Co., Ca,1978. 

68. Young, OR. The Intermediaries: Third Parties in International Crisis, Princeton, University Press: 
Princeton. 1967. 

69. Jouval, Sadia. Biased Intermediaries: Theoretical and Historical Considentions Jerusalem Journal 
of International Relations. Vol. #1 . P.5 1 , 1975. 

70. Brown, Carl International Politics and the Middle East, Old Rules, Dangerous Games. Princeton 
University Pressl984. 

71. Sadat, Anwar In Search of Id entity: An Auto-biography, Harper Colophon BooksN.Y. 1977 p. 
261. 

72. Milstein, Jefforey, Soviet and American Influence on the Arabt Isralie Arms Race., The Middle 
East, ed by waiter Isord, Cambridge Mass 1972. 

73. Ikle, F. How Nations Negotiate, Institute for Diplomacy, Georgetown UniversityWashington 
D.C.1988. 

74. Ibid., pp.26:43. 



18 



75. Andrews. KR., The Concept of Corporate Strategy. Home Wood Illinois. Richard D. Irwin, Inc 1980. 

76. Alfred R. Oxenfeldt. The Formulation of a Market Strategy, in Eugene Kelly* William Lazer, Eds. 
Mangerial Marketing: Policies, Strategies and DecisionsHomewood, Illinois, Richard irwin Inc. 1973. 

77. The Economist, Nov 30 .1991. 

78. Elkins, Arthur, Management Structures: Functions & Practices London: Addisor, Wesley, Inc. 
1980. 

79. Makenna, Eugene F., Psychology in Business: Theory & Applications Lowrence Erlbawm Associates 
Ltd. 1989. 

.80. David W. Gravens and Charles Lamb, Strategic Marketing: Cases and Applications Illinois, Richard 

D.Irwin Inc. 1983. 

81. Maximychev, Igor, German Unification Journal of International Affairs, English Translation 
Publication of Progress Publisher Moscow; October 1990. PP 43-36. 

82. Salacuse, Jeswald Making Global Deals: Negotiating IN THE INTERNATIONAL Market Place 
Houghton Miff in Company . 1991. 

tAuXc ■ ala ua * SASK^a 4_<u>-jj i4_u,L*JI Cli\ ajLt^aJl a_Lua ,_il 7^-^-^ ' '"„ 0'j-'-* J ^^A^-j^-a <Ljb-i-uJ - 

. 1993 £jj>U!j j t \}\l 4-JjjlII J jJI 

83. Ibid, p. 87. 

84. Ibid, p.75. 

85. Ibid. p76. 

86. Habeeb, William Mark, Ibid, p. 34:35. see. (56) 

87. Salacuse, Ibid, p .80. 

88. Cohen, Raymond. Problems of International Communication in Egyptian-American Relations in 
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 1 1 , pp. 29-47, 1 987. 

89. Tannen, Deborah The Pragmatics of Cross-Cultural Communication, Applied Linguistics, Vol. 5, 
No 3,1984. 

90. Chafe, Wallace. Integration and Involvement in Speaking & Oral Literaturejn D . Tannen (ed.)t . 

Spoken and Written Language, Ablex: Norwood, NJ, pp. 35-53,1982. 

9 1 . Clark, Virginia et al Language, The Language of the body: Kinesics and Proxemics pp. 453:528, St. 
Martins Press, New Yorkl977. 

92. Salacuse, Lid.p 80:81. 
93.1bid,p81. 

94. Zandt, Howard, How to Negotiate in Japan in Intercultural Communication: A. Reader, by Larry 



19 



!_, up !_■ ■■■ 1 1 9 i^cLcCIpUl (jiglojJI |dJLc ^S ^n^Sn 

Sam Ovar and Richard Porter, Wadsworth Publissting Company, Inc. Belmont, CA. 1976. 

95. Zandt, Ibid, p. 308. 

96. salacuse, Ibid, p82. 

97. Institute for the Study of Diplomacy of Georgetown University, UN. Security Council Resolution 
242: A Case Study in Diplomatic Ambiguity, Washington D.C.1985. 

98. Salacuse, Ibid. p. 84. 
99. ,Ibid,p85. 

,j A.;Tlj 3 f- 1 . La 1 1 4A_dLlaJI jlj t(JT jlj_ti a! u!^j if-iLtil j^yjjjjl » o*4-^JL I ^3 ritj : 4_iSLjj_la_J I 4_u_JI - 

.1987 cCjjj-u 

- Neopatnarchy: A Theory of Distorted Change in the Arab Society, Oxford. University, Press, 1988. 
.alj ;1 i.i^fl ^ jjj-aJ 5jri,,il'^ imljj :4j£LkJI ol^^ '83 «-Sj S-3jjJ,I «JU^ i_>LlS Lijt f-a-lj - 

.(1994 ^jU) aUJ ^llaJI jLiii »UI .j i njlb (j-^Km.II 

101. Salacuse, Ibid, p,.86. 

102. Snyder & Diesing. Ibid, p 207:209. 

103. Grice. H.P. Presupposition & Conversational Implicature, in Coles ed. 1981. 

104. Eco., Umberto. Dr. Eligia, Dolbuox Deassman An Interview in Al-Cafe Journal Sacramento. CA. 
December.. 1983. 

105. Tannen, Deborah, THAT IS NOT WHAT I MEANT! William Morrow & Co. Inc.N.Y. 1986, p 

199. 

. 1988 ^yjojjua ilia uijVI iJj-*U! ^ aM-^uJI J^-f <j-a ^ajLilll ' w i Q& J_t£:Lu-u] -106 

107. Hassan Wageih (c) pp. 23-25. (see 45). 



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in the Market place of Ideas. Journal of Communication, spring 1993/Vol. 43 No. 2/8 pp 58:68. 

. 1994/4/IQ.Ij^Vl wjl^tll 5j ,^ » t UJI 4^-j -3 

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( 1 ) Grice, H.P. presupposition and Conversational Implicature, in Cole, P. & Morgan J. L. (eds) Syntax 
& Semantics: Speech Acts. N. Y Academic Press . 1975 . 
(2) Scruton, Roger A Dictionary of Political Thought, Hill and Wang. N.Y. 1982 (pp270-267). 

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-87 ,_^ «j_jjJIJI 4_uj-a» ((^L-tli-JI <Lajlj 4-UjjJI 5'dl ^tl » (jIjIaj Ljj^j _i 1^3 . J i_)Ij£ cLUJl£j ^ j i .a t, I 

. 1991 ^jLtf «i>UuSU 4_j1jjU! a^-iJI u . 1992-90 
tJk jjJI ^ ilL^jJ!) 1968 0j -tt\2l\ 5jU£. .* <jlA* ( <l*l£L!l JUcVl t^UiVl <>;jJI J 1 -*^ " 5 

.1964.3^1111 ,j-J^JIj ilal ,U 1 4.^1] I jljJI .(I I 1 1-1059) jl^Vl SlSLi^ .^Ijill juol^jjt-6 

(7)Stewart & Cash Interviewing, Principles and Practices, Brown Publishers, Dubuque Iowa 1978. 
(8)Brady, John, The Craft of Interviewing, Vintage Books,. Y. 1977 

(9)Sinclair,J&Coulthard Towards an Analysis of Discourse, Oxford University Press. Londonl987. 
( 10)A1-Aridi, Yahya A Discourse Analysis of Political Television Interviews: Van ation in Interactants 
Manipulation of Language A Dissertation, Georgetowr University 1 986. 
(I l)Kedar, Leah Power Through Discourse, Ablex Norwood, NJ 1987. 

.1993 /6 /3 ?tjjljj j><J' oAj.j^-1 3jj. ji-J. I ^jJljJJI SjLj.Ju 4.<.Jlv j-j^j f-^-lj - 12 

(13)Tannen, Deborah & Saville-Troike Perspectives on Silence, Abledx Publishing Corporation, 
Norwood, New Jersey 1985 pi 99. 
(14)Ibid.,P. XV 
(15)Ibid.,pp (21:77) 



236 



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4jlySL!l <Uulji.il! 9 ibrn.^ £>.\j (VjS CL^Uj '...mm jl . jt-i*i..i_i V fjUJ.1) 

1994/ 5/16 

(16)Ibidp 165. 

(17)Ibidp55. 

(18)See. (1) 

(19)Niereberg, Gerard Fundamentals of Negotiating, Harper & Row, Publishers, N.Y.I 987 p 151 

(20)Bate. Walter Harvard Magazine, The Crisis of English Studies, Sep. -Oct 1982, pp 46-53. 

(21)U.N. Security Council Resolution 242: A Case Study in Diplomatic Ambiguity, by Lord Caradon, 

Arthur Golderg, Mohamed Hassan El-Zayyat & Abba Iban. Published by Institute for the Study of 

Diplomacy, Georgetown University. 1981 

. 1 990/8/25. Jl^I ..j^lJJ.1 . - .o. ^l l)) . JyjIjiJI ^Lui -22 
. 1990 /9 /4 ._)Lii-Vl .(^^c-iJIj i«jVl» .Jiiin _u>_^ -23 

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(14 l^) 1986 jjLu .37 jjuJI cijjjjj jj^SJI 
MJ ^ ^ja 5_ L> < .. . «tl cLU*JI s L3t cljuJJ Qj ,. . <m vjlkiJ J^Kll o^JI <>l £>LU>U -25 

■u^> r : "/ tp-^ v 1 ^ j^-b '^i^ 1 

Kissinger, Henry Years of Upheaval, Little Brown & Co. Bastonl982 pp530- 531. 



(I 16 : 1 13 ^ i^ljjJI o-° JjVl *J^JI (2) (cSj j^.jJ.1 j^-lj ( 26 ) 

(27)Cohen, Raymond, Problems of Intercultural Communication in Egyptian-Amer) jean Diplomatic 
Relations, International Journal of Intercultural Relatiom. Vol. 1 1 pp 29-47, 1987. 

(28)Tannen, D, Spoken and Written Language: Integration & Involvement in Speakingand writing in 

Advances in Discourse Analysis, Ablex. Norwood N.Y.I 982. 

(29)Fowler, Roger, Language & Control, Rontledge & Kegan Paul 1979. 

(30)Shuy, Roger, Conversational Power in FBI Convert Tape Recordings, in Leah Kedar eds. 1 987. 

VI jl^JI J!t j^\ £A ^Lajotfl {J ±ju i JL^uV \ju^ju ^ jl^J Jl3 Chafe cuL^ilJl (*JLi {j\£ I jl- 

5^3 j^jl ^j-Lt-cu $\ «Power» i>jJiJI CjLajJlS^u 4HJjLL<u aj g-aXI (^Li L^LJl^o ^ c jJ^j Tannen (jl 



257 



!_, up !_■ ■■■ 1 1 9 i^cLcCIpUl yjb$la.Jj\ pic ^S ^n^Sn 

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(31)Tannen, D. That is not What Imeant!, William Marrow & Company, Inc. N.Y 1986 pplOl-1 19. 
(32)Lasswell, H, & N. Listes. Language of Politics: Studies in Quantitative Semantics George W. 
Stewart Publisher Inc. N.Y. 1949. 

(33)Hassan-Wageih, H. A liguistic Analysis of Mechanisms Underlying Power in In ternational Political 
Negotiations, PHD, Dissertation Georgetown University Washington D.C1989. 
(34)Tannen, D, You Just Dont Understand Women & Men in Conversation, Ballantine Books N.Y. 
1990(# 1 National Bestseller), p 25. 

,^/Sn i^ ^nl l 1992/1/5 jjjli (ajj^liJl) jLiVl Sju^ -35 
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.(162 ^t^l ^1992 

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Patai, Raphael The Arab Mind, Charles Senbners Sons, N Y. 1983(38). (p 1 56) 

OJlJ».^JI CjLJjJ j^J-A jjJJJtJi Jiri'iMiU Alsxija «£_Jl>J! 4-aj^ ^LaiJI J-duelJ I » lt >LioLj Ju^tJI -39 

(. 1991 /6 4-u^lJI 
(40)Lane-Pooles, Stanley Saladin and the Fall of the kingdon of Jerusalem, Lave-G. P. N.Y., putnams 
Sons.N.Y1978. 

i..UUj 1936 (jJjVl 2 ._. U1I lcr x>L^VI i>LAll 3 ;"i< a n_jJiLII an,,il'^ .»>L<l i^J-^a J-<u*^ . j -41 

. 1987 3_jJiliJI 
(1987 i^lill a.i Ul l) ^j^l Jill j|j .j-iLUI njjjJI ^^ln S L^I lLr il>i!l j-aU ^jt ^LaVI -42 

.(yljJIjiJliJIoLV^JI) 

.1993/ I /I7 ^ljj,Vl i(l ;l , a- , ,, ^ai:Lu^5jLil,, oljiiCjU.j.j (43) 

(44)Koch, Barbara Johnstone. Parataxis in Arabic: Modification AS Model for Presentation, Paper 

Presented at the Linguistic Society of America, Annual Meeting, Mineapolis, Minnesota, December- 

1983. 

(45) Repetition in discourse: Cohesion and Persuasion in Arabic 



238 



^jjlUl 63lcUI 9 6JjAloJI jJ=JI 6-dftg 

Argumentative Prose, PH. D. Dissertation, University of Michigan 1981. 

(46) Presentation as Proof: The language of Arabic rhetoric. 

Anthropological linguistics pp-25:51-61,1983. 

(47)Rodell, Goldfarb, & James Raymond Clear Understanding: Aguide to Legal writing Lets Kill all 

the lawyers (pp IX: XV)Random House N.Y1982. 

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(l)Morganthau, Hans, The Politics Among Nations: The struggle for power & peace 5th ed., Alfred A. 

Kjiopf: N. Y, 1973. 

(2}Boyett, Joseph & Conn, Henery, Work place 2000: The Revolution Reshaping American Business, 

Penguin Group N.Y. N.Y. 1 990. 

(3)Nierenberg, Gerard, Fundamentals of Negotiating, Harper & Row, Publishers, N.Y1987. 

(4)Fraser, Bruce The challenge of adversative discourse to the cooperative principle in shuy &Tomic 

ed Topics in Language and Linguistics, 1987 p. 198. 

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A COURSE DESCRIPTION 
DIPLOMACY & PRAGMAICS 
OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION 

Successful diplomatic exchange relies critically on bridging any. gap that 
may exist between different cultures. The challenge for dip. lomats or interactants 
in international settings at large is to capture, within the context of the source 
culture, all meanings inherent in a given message at every discourse level so as 
to avoid misunderstandings or misperceptions while interacting with others. 
Focussing on the importance of understanding the nature of communicative 
mechanisms in a given culture or across cultures, this course will cover the 
following: sections & readings 

Section* 1: The Need For An x,Joji "a " llj 3 j mLajJbjJI --»N cl aJLlI 
Interdisciplinary Approach For: Studying Diplomatic I Negotiational Interactions 

This section introduces an interdisciplinary approach for studying diplomatic 
I negotiational interactions, his approach derives its basic concepts from the 
findings of the three disciplines of linguistics, Polit. ical Science & International 
relations. 

This section also demonstrates the components of strategic communicative 
competencies that a diplomatist or prospective diplomatist. Or an interactant in 

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international communication context must have 
Readings: 

- Power & International Political Negotiation. 

- Analysis Of Power In Negotiations: Perspectives From Linguistics, Political 
Science & International Relations. 

- A Linguistic Analysis Of Power Mechanisms Underlying International 
Political Negotiations A Dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 
1989 by Hassan Wageih Hassan(Ch. #1 & Ch.2# ). 

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Section # II: Dilpmacy, Negotiation, Bargaining, Persuasion &Propaganda: 
This section is intended to clarify the differences inherent in the. meanings 
of the above key concepts. 
Readings: 

- Diplomacy & Negotiation ch. #1 from Nicolsons Book Diplomacy 
published by the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy,Georgetown University, 
Washington D.C. 1988(ed). 

- Negotiation, & Bargaining. 

- Negotiational Objectives ch #1 & ch #3 from F.C. Ikle's book How Nations 
Negotiate, Harper & row, Purchase N.X. 1987. (ppl-7 &pp26-42). 

- Language, persuasion & Propaganda. From Werkuneister's book. An 
Introduction to Critical Thinking, lohnsen publishing company, 1948. 

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Section # III: Diplomacy & Ethnolinguistics This section provides findings 
of several case studies in the field of Ethnolinguistics that highlight the degrees 
of cultural barriers and the dynamics of cross cultural-communication. 

This section is intended to increase the diplomatists or the prospective 
diplomatists awareness of- the sope of problems he or she may face in real cross- 
cultural communication situations. 



290 



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Readings: 

- Pragmatics of Cross-Cultural Communication, by D. Tannen in Applied 
Linguistics, Vol. 5 No. 3, 1984,ppl-8). 

- Kinesics & Proxemics: part eight in Virginia Clark et als book Language, 
1977, pp.453-528). 

- That Is Not What I Meant, by D. Tannen, ch #2 & ch #10, published by 
William Morrow & company, Inc., New York, 1986. 

- The Art Of Diplomatic Signalling, ch. #1 & ch #7, by R. Cohen, Longman 
1987,(pp98- 114&ppl88-166). 

- Arguments With Khomeini: Rhetorical situation& persuasive style in cross- 
cultural perspective, Text (2), Mounton De Grayter. Amesterdam, 1986 by B. 
Johnston,(pp 1 53- 1 7 1 ). 

- Problems of International Communication in Egyption-Amer-. ican 
Relations in International Journal Of Intercultural Relations. vol. 11, 1987 by 
R. Cohen,pp29-47. 

- Cultural Influences upon Perception by Harry Triandis,(ppl 19-124). 

- How to negotiate in Japan, by Howerd F. Vanzanat,(pp 307-3 19),in Samorar 
& Porter ed. Intercultural Communication A Reader Prespective,1979. 

- Undiplomatic Translations, in Native Tongues by Charles Berlitz, The 
Putnam publishing group N.Y. 1982. (pp 153- 159). (Additional examples will 
be added). 

- How To Do Business in the Middle East Management Review 65. no. 8 
August 1976: 19-28 by Alghanim Kutayba. 

- Egypt: A Strong Sense of National Identity. In Hans Binne-diik, ed, 
National Negotiating styles. Washington D.C. Foreign Ser. vice Institute, U.S. 
Department of State, 1987 by william quandt. 

- Argentinas Bargaining with IMF. Journal of Inter American Stud-, ies & 
World Affairs 29, No. 3 (Autunm 1987) 55-86 by stiles K.W. 

- The Asian Mind Game: Unlocking the Hidden Agenda of the Asian 



291 



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Business Culture: A Westerners Survival Manual. New. York: Maxwell 
Macmillan International 1990 by Chu, Chin Ning. 

- Negotiating with Firms in Developing Countries: two case studies Industrial 
Marketing Management 17, no. l(FebuAry 1988)49-53 study of India &nigeria 
by Ghuari, Pervez N. 

- Marketing Negotiations in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and 
the United States. Journal of Marketing 52, no. 2(April 1988): 49- 62 by Cambell, 
Nigel C. John L. Graham, Alain Jolibert. and Hans Gunther Meissner . 

- Some Believes of Americans can Lead to Wrong Conclusions The 
Nihan Kerzai Shimbun. Japan Economic Journal(August. 1980)24 FF by 
herberger, Roy. A. :4-u-uLaybjJI j_uUIIj i^^ujIj^. jjjLj" 

Section # IV: Grice Maxims & Diplomatic Maxims 
This section brings into focus Grices Conversational Maxims and. relates 
these Maxims to Diplomatic Maxims 
Readings: 

- Grice Maxims in Stephen C. Levinson's Pragmatics publishedby 
Cambridge Textbooks linguistics N.Y. 1983,(ppl00-l 18). 

- Language & Morality by Henery Abraham,(pp 565- 676)in Exposition & 
The English Language, James Sanderson & W.Gordon published by Merdith 
corporation 1969. 

- The Bargaining Reputation. 

- Rules of Accommodation ch. #6 & 7 in Ikle's How Nations Negotiate, 
Harper & Row, publishers N.Y.pp76-122. 

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Section # V: Ambiguity & Levels of Explicitness in Diplomatic Documents 
This section highlights cases of ambiguity and demonstrates level of explicitness 
in diplomatic documents. 

Readings: 

- U.N. Security Council Resolution 242: A Case Study In Diplomatic 



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Ambiguity Lord Crdon, Arthur I.Goldberg.Mohamed H.El-Zayyat Abba Ehan, 
published by Instiute For The Study Of Diplomacy. 

- Text of the Anglo-French Ultimatum directed to Egypt in 1956. Suez 
Crisis 

-Text of Nixons letter to Sadat during 1973 October crisis. (Other text will 
be provided for analysis and comparison). 

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Section # VI: Diplomacy & The Personality Of The Diplomatist: Or The 
Political Actor: This section provides some important theoretical findings in 
re-lation to the study area of personality and politics. It also displays pat-terns 
of interactions derived from the practices of influential & con. temporary political 
actors in our world. 
Readings: 

- Personality & Politics ch #IV by F. Greenstein, Markham publishing 
company Chicago 1969,pp 14-25. 

- Cognitive Maps & International Realities: Kissingers Approach to world 
politics and The Policies of Henry Kissinger, in Henry Kissinger: his personality 
& Policies, edited by Dan Caldnehl Durham, N.C. 1983,pp 86-108 ch #4 & ch 
5#. 

- A Cultural Analysis of the Rhetoric of Francois Mitterand by Beatrice K. 
Reynolds International lournal of Intercultural Relations. Vol. H.(pp279- 
294,187). 

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Section # VII: Essential Technical Training Needed For Diplomatists Or 

Interactants In Cross-Cultural Communication Negotiating Situations: 

This section is intended to address essential technical skills that a diplomatist 

must develop continually. The following are some of such skills: 
1) Building & refuting arguments in political & business settings. 



293 



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2) Ability to avoid being trapped by the subtle linguistic strategies deployed 
by professional interviewers or other interactants in gen eral. This means the 
ability to deal with control exercising dis course strategies, that in many cases 
serve the agenda of one party, i while blocking and thwarting the agenda of the 
recipient 

3) Knowledge of the essential types of text and talk analyses such as Speech 
Acts, Topic & Move Analyses. This type of knowledge greatly enhances 
understanding of the working mechanisms of, such linguistic elements in various 
discoursal contexts. 

Readings: 

- On Discourse Analysis, Speech Acts, Topic & Move Analyses, ch.#3 
Dissertation by Hassan Wageih Hassan(cited in section #1). ( pp58-101) 

- Argumentation in Politics & in Business, ch 313. #15 in Argumentation 
And The Decision Making Process, by Richard Dieke Malcolm Sillars Scott, 
Foresman & Company Glenview, Illinoisl984 pp 264-283 & pp307-337.. 

- Questions & their uses in Interviewing: Principles & Practices W.M.C. 
Brown publishers, Dubuque, Iowa 1985 pp79-104. 

- Strategies for Processing Political Information in Doriss A.Grabers 
Processing The News: How People Tame the Information,Tide, Longman, N. Y. 
1984,pp 123-146. 

- Texts for analysis will be provided. 

Section # VIII: Glossary Of Technical Diplomatic Phrases: From Nicolsons 
Diplomacy, cited in section #1 l(ppl22-136). 



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